Speech Lang Test 2

Question Answer
phonetically consistent forms not true words, but are idiosyncratic word-like productions that children use consistently & meaningfully. do not approximate adult forms. consistent sound structure
deictic gestures use objects to get attention, meaning of gesture changes across contexts. showing, giving, pointing
when do deictic gestures emerge 10 months
referential gestures precise referent or semantic content, stable meaning across contexts, signals transition from prelinguistic to linguistic communication (ex. shushing motion)
when do referential gestures emerge 12 months
development of word & gesture use deictic gestures, referential gestures, single words, word + gesture combinations, 2 word combinations
child gesture use at 14 months predicts parent gesture use and child vocab size by 42 months
phonological processes systematic, rule-governed speech patterns that simplify speech production
phonological processes are gradually suppressed which leads to more adult like speech
when are phonological processes mostly suppressed by 36 months
phonology (4) phonemic inventory increases, phonological processes, phonological perception, increases in intelligibility
phonological perception which differences in speech signal differences in meaning, word recognition strategies
what percent of words are intelligible at 16 months 25%
what percent of words are intelligible at 24 months 50-65%
what percent of words are intelligible at 36 months 80%
morphology grammatical morphemes, 18-24 months, after 1st 50 words acquired
overgeneralizations adding regular morpheme to irregular roots, "I maked it"
syntax multiword utterances, changes in sentence forms, syntax becomes more complex
approximate MLU expectations at 12 months 1.0
approximate MLU expectations at 24 months 2.0
approximate MLU expectations at 36 months 3.0
content (3) overextension, underextension, overlap
overextension use words in an overly general manner
3 types of overextension categorical, analogical, relational
categorical overextension extend a known word to other words in the same category (dogs called dogs, cats also called dogs)
analogical overextension extend a known word to other words that are perceptually similar – the referents look similar (ball is called a ball, the moon is called a ball)
rational overextension extend a known word to other words that are semantically or thematically related (hairbrush is called a brush, a comb is called a brush, a hairbow is called a brush)
what percent of new words do we overgeneralize 1/3
receptive lexicon words that children comprehend
expressive lexicon words that children produce
when does vocabulary spurt/word spurt/naming explosion take place 18-24 months or can produce 50 words
how many new words do children learn per day during vocabulary spurt 9 per day
underextension using words to refer to only a subset of possible referents (using the word bottle only to reference to baby bottles, not glass or plastic bottles)
overlap overextension of a word in certain circumstances and underextension of the same word in other circumstances (using the word candy to refer to jelly beans and grandmother's pills – overextension – but not to chocolate – underextension)
how many words should a child be able to comprehend & produce by 24 months comprehend 500 words, produce 200 words
how many words should a child be able to comprehend & produce by 36 months comprehend 900 words, produce 500 words
fast mapping type of task in which the rate at which children map a new word to its referent is determined, learn novel words with just a few incidental exposures, may have limited/incomplete understanding of the word
agent entity that performs the action
theme entity undergoing an action or movement
source starting point for movement
goal ending point for movement
location place where action occurs
discourse functions (7) instrumental, regulatory, interactional, personal, heuristic, imaginative, informative
instrumental request something
regulatory commanding
interactional interacting with someone in a social way
personal express their feelings about something
heuristic requesting information to learn more about the world
imaginative pretending, telling stories
informative provide information to other people
conversation skills may be able to initiate a conversational topic, sustain that topic only for 1-2 turns, difficulty keeping audience's needs in mind, unlikely to seek clarification
intraindividual differences comprehension > production, deals with only one child
interindividual differences observes a group of toddlers & compares them
reflexive sounds very first sounds produced, sounds of discomfort/stress, vegetative sounds, baby isn't controlling the sounds but adults respond as if he/she is
when do reflexive sounds appear 0-2 months
control of phonation cooing & gooing, vowel-like sounds may be combined with consonant-like sounds, "raspberries", some nasalized sounds
when does control of phonation appear 1-4 months
expansion produce true vowel sounds, experiment with pitch & loudness, produce marginal babbling
marginal babbling contains consonant-like and vowel-like segments, but have prolonged transition between segments
when does expansion appear 3-8 months
when does true babbling appear 5-10 months
2 types of babbling reduplicated, nonreduplicated
reduplicated babbling dadadada, mamama
nonreduplicated babbling ma, da
when do whispers appear 5-10 months
when do diphthongs appear 9-18 months
jargon special type of babble that contains the melodic patterns of an infant's native language, sounds speech like but not true words (dont convey meaning)
paralinguistic features (3) high overall pitch, exaggerated pitch contours, slower tempos
syntactic characteristics (3) shorter MLU, fewer dependent clauses collection of simple sentences, more content words & fewer functions
discourse characteristics (3) more repetition, more questions, larger linguistic units
3 purposes of IDS attracts infants, aids in communicating emotion & speakers communicative intent, IDS captures attention of babies & more interested in IDS compared to ADS
when does joint attention form 6 months
intersubjective awareness recognition of when one shares a mental focus on some external object or action with another person
intentional communication attempts to deliberately communicate with others
when does intentional communication emerge 8 months
3 indicators of intentionality alternates eye gaze between object & caregiver, use of gestures (pointing), persistence on part of infant by repeating or modifying gesture when communicative attempt fails
imperative pointing pointing by an infant to request an adult to retrieve an object
when does imperative pointing emerge 10 months
declarative pointing pointing by an infant to call an adult's attention to an object/comment on an object. social process
when does declarative pointing emerge 10 months
caregiver responsiveness refers to caregivers' attention and sensitivity to infants' vocalizations and communicative attempts
______ responsivity from mothers is linked to child's first word & two word sentences high
7 key indicators of caregiver responsiveness waiting & listening, following the child's lead, joining in & playing, being face-to-face, using a variety of questions and labels, encouraging turn taking, expanding and extending
distinguishes between purposeful & accidental actions & begins to form object categories (month) 4 months
understands no (month) 6 months
understands 5-10 words (month) 12 months
when do kids say their first word 12 months
3 criteria for true word clear intention, recognizable pronunciation that approximates adult form, consistent & generalizes beyond original context to all appropriate exemplars
how many words does a child have to produce before they start to combine words 50
when do children learn to combine words 18 months
begins to attend to social partners birth
recognizes own name 4 months
engages in early joint attention 6 months
begins to use intentional communication 8 months
preverbal functions of language attention seeking to self, attention seeking to events/objects/people, requesting objects, requesting action, requesting info, greeting, transferring, protesting/rejecting, responding, informing

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