PSY101 Final

Question Answer
Who highlighted the reproductive advantages of environmentally adaptive traits? DCharles Darwin
Of the following experimental situations which might be conducted by a structuralist using the method of introspection? ADocumenting subjects' descriptions of an experience
Willliam James was a prominent American whose inters in pragmatic philosophy led him to an approach emphasizing cause and effect, which eventually came to be named… CFunctionalism
With which school of psychology is Wilhelm Wundt associated? B-structuralism
Psychologists use scientific methods to study… A-behavior and mental processes
According to the definition of psychology, which of the following is NOT a behavior? D- being overweight
According to the definition of psychology, which of the following is a mental process? B-remembering
Behavior is …….; mental processes are ………… D-observable; private
You place a raisin on your tongue and report the following experiences: "Rough, sweet, and grainy." You are using a method called… A-introspection
If you are interested in the functionalist approach to psychology, you would be most interested in D-how human consciousness works to help us exist and survive
Which best depicts John B. Watson's belief about studying human behavior. C-only visible behavior can be measured and understood
Psychologists who study the role of the brain in psychological process use the B-neuroscience perspective
Dr. Daack has spent a lifetime studying how adults solve problems. It is likely that Dr. Daack specializes in ……. psychology. A-cognitive
Dr. Zimand is studying testosterone levels and aggression in adult males. It is likely that Dr. Zimand specializes in the …… approach to psychology. D-biological
"The problem with drinking coffee in the evening," complained Saundra, "is that it interferes with my ability to fall asleep. My mind keeps racing, but my body is so tired!" Saundra recognizes …. b/w caffeine intake and sleep. A-the negative correlation
Careful study of just one unusual person is an example of the …. method. C-case study
A theory can be defined as C-an explanation of relationships among facts and principles
…. Attempts to view behavior w/o disturbing the environment. A-naturalistic obervation
After starting Ch.1, Alice wants to study butterflies using the scientific method. Which of these represents a step or steps in the scientific method? D-alice has performed steps in the scientific method with each of these activities
Darwin's process of natural selection means that C- whichever characteristics are favored by the environment are more likely to continue
It been proposed that student have difficult return academic schedule after holiday.. , it been predicted that there more student absences on Mon. follow spring break than on the Fri prior to spring brea. The 1st statement describes the . while the 2nd B-theory; hypothesis
Drake hypothesized more freshman engage in head scratching than srs. To test hypothesis, he has to provide spec. description of behavior which he could count as one head scratching. Specfific description go behavior is called D-an operational definition
Archival research, naturalistic observation, survey research, and case studies are….. research. B-descriptive
"This cannot be the real opinion of the entire student body! She didn't ask C-a prwepresentative sample of responses can indicate the view of the majority
Variables are elements of research which A- can change
The class has agreed to be subj of research. Half class asked to study for next test listening to classical music. Remaining students asked to study for next test while listening to classical music. Remaning students asked to study silent envier. The te D- the test scores
Scientists conducted a study involving 2 variables. Their research indicated a strong pos. correlation b/w two variables. This means that D- as one variable increases, the other also increases
Archival research, naturalistic observation, survey research, and case studies are examples of … research B- descriptive
You want to determine relationship b/w caffeine intake & performance on exam. Student write # of drink ingested 2hrs before exam. Correlation coefficient +0.82. What can you conclude? A- the more caffeine students consumed, the better their scores
In scientific research, the group which receives treatment is called the A- experimental group
The coach needed team to arrive no later than 6AM. team come 20 min late. Coach used diff rewards to inc punctuality. He released earliest arriving 10 min early; allowed early birds to watch fitness video & late ran. Early release & watch video are….. C- independent variables
The median is…. D- none of the above
The small group of participants observed in a research study are referred to as the A- sample
You want to design research study surveying sample group of US citizen. Which methods could you use to gather a sample designed to be representative of the US population? D- none of the answers are correct
Which of the following is a technique that would NOT fall under the survey method? C- observation
Which of the following correlation coefficient is indicative of the strongest relationship b/w the two variables? C- -0.87
Five students had the following scores on a psychological test: 10, 10, 15, 25,and 40. The mean of these five scores is (Hint sum x=100) C- 20
The nucleus of a neuron is located in the C-
The primary function of dendrites is to D- receive incoming information
What is the correct route a message takes within a neuron? B- dendrite, cell body, axon
When a neuron is at its resting state, what is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane? B- there is a negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside
Uncle Manny had Parkinson disease. He suffered from muscular rigidity and tremors. He had low levels of which neurotransmitter? B- dopamine
If you were a neurologist and wanted to study a patient who presented with symptoms of bipolar disorder consisting of alternating episodes of mania and depression, which of the neurotransmitters might you first examine? C- norephinephrine
The physical junction between two neurons is called the C- synapse
According to the all-or-none principle, what would happen if a cell were depolarized twice the normal amount needed to produce an action potential? B- the action potential would not be affected by the strength of the depolarization
A student has difficulty sleeping regularly, has problems with paying attention in class and with learning, and suffers from depression. This student may not have enough of the neurotransmitter might you first examine? B- serotonin
The terms spinal cord, somatic nerves, and parasympathetic division are best associated with the D- peripheral nervous system
If a doctor told you that insufficient nutrients were being transported from your blood vessels to your neurons, you might suspect from reading chapter 3 that the problem was in your …. cells. A- glial
A neurologist says that your aunt has a condition affecting her central nervous system. You know from your book that the parts affected are the C- brain and spinal cord
You are listening to a lecture. Then the bell rings in the hallway. When you hear these stimuli, it is … neurons that carry electrochemical messages from your ears to your brain. B- afferent
The region of the brain that is involved with processing emotions, especially fear and rage is the…. A- amygdala
Essential body functions such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion, sweating, and sexual arousal are under the control of the….. D- autonomic nervous system
Which of the following are the two integrated parts of the autonomic nervous system? A- the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system
If you are in a somewhat stressful situation, and you experience inc in salivation, constriction of lungs, contraction of bladder, and activation of digestive tract, you know your ….. nervous system is primarily responsible for these operations. B- sympathetic
After finishing a psychology test, you try to relax by engaging in some meditation techniques. Doing these exercises should inc the response of the … nervous system and result in slower heart and respiration rates and less muscular tension. C- parasympathetic
You walk to class & you don't have to think consciously abt how to walk. When you get there, you pay attent. to lecture even though it's boring & tired. The structure that plays important role in act by manipulation of various neurotransmitters is the A- reticular formation
A paramedic arrives at an accident. One of the people injured has a problem breathing and cannot stand upright. Most likely, the area of the hindbrain damaged is the B- medulla obloganta
If a person's cerebellum were damaged in an accident, you would expect the person to have a problem with D- Balance and muscle coordination
One of the pleasure centers of the brain is found in the A- hypothalamus
Within the limbic system, the amygdala plays a key role in ……. and the hippocampus plays a key role in….. B- aggression; memory
Conscious experience and voluntary actions are mediated by the B- cerebral cortex
The neurobiologist explained to the students, "The neural system is very much like wires connecting ur TV & stereo to electrical outlet. If wires weren't covered w/ insulation, signal would short circuit." The neurobiologist was describing the function o D- myelin sheath
The two chemicals that move into and out of a neuron during the creation of an action potential are: C- potassium and sodium
Neuron A releases a neurotransmitter onto neuron B. The neurotransmitter opens ….. channels and begins the process of generating another action potential in Neuron B. A- chemically-gated
The part of the brain that acts as a relay station, sending incoming information to the appropriate region of cortex, is the…. C- thalamus
Any situation that involves learning A- requires some relatively permanent change to occur
in classical conditioning situations, the …. connection is innate, but the … connection is learned B- UCS-UCR; CS-CR
You feel fine as you sit down in your usual seat in german class. Dr announces pop quiz over 100 of diff vocal, heart pounds and you get queasy, this reaction is most likely a B- UCR
Boris is trying to use classical conditioning to teach his goldfish to come to top of tank. when light on, food drops& light on. After, fish show no incline. to come top tank when light on. What would you suggest that boris do to improve his training t A- he should turn on the light before he drops the food into the tank
watson and ray nor used….. as a CS in order to condition fear in little albert A- a white rat
Carol gives her dog, cutie pie, a treat each time cutie pie sits on command. Carol is using a … schedule to train her dog to sit on command. A- continuous reinforcement
carols dog,cutie pie, sits when she says sit. Carol wants teach new trick. she says speak, but cutie pie sits. The dog's behavior is an example of A- generalization
after extensive training, cutie pie sits when carol says speak, barks when carol says sit. Initially, cutie pie sat down whenever carol said either speak or sit. cutie pie is now demonstrating C- discrimination
Dr. Meyer is known for diff pop quiz. Immediately before he springs a pop quiz on his students, he goes to class door and closes it. Students learn to anticipate a pop quiz whenever dr. meyer closes class door. Closing door has become a A- CS
Kelley is scolded each time she teases her little brother. Her mother notices that the frequency of teasing has decreased. Scolding kelley is an effective D- positive punisher
Four month old baby Nimo quickly learns that he will be picked up baby Nimo whenever he cries A- is a postive reinforcer for crying
Larry is sent to his room each time hits his little brother. After a few time of being sent to his room, Larry's misbehavior towards his little brother decreases. Sending larry to his room is an example of B- negative punishment
fRED'S PARENTS ARE VERY INCONSISTENT W/ THEIR CHILDBEARING RULES. fRED CAN CLIMB ON FURNITURE SOMETIMES AND THEN HE CANRT. sOMETIMES HE CAN STAY UP SOMETIMES NO. fRED'S PAENTS CANT UNDERSTAND WHY HE ISNT BETTER BEHAVED CHILD. fREDS PARENTS ARE REINFORCING C- partial reinforcement schedule
the behavioral approach to learning defines learning in terms of C- change
anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of A- associative learning
Pavlov's dog learned to anticipate food whenever he was presented w/ stimuli associated w/ food. How did pavlov know that his dog assoc specific stimuli w/ food? C-
When you see the bright color and round shape of a tomato on the vine in your vegetable garden, smell its sun-warmed fragrance, and hear the buzzing of a nearby bee, your process of receiving stimulus energy from the environment is called A- sensation
When you hear music or see a light, you receive physical energy from a stimulus in the world. Your process of converting physical energy from the world into electrochemical energy is called D- transduction
In the 19060s, the Coca-Cola company tried something new with their advertising. During a TVprogram, the words+logo Drink Coke were shown on the screen for a short time. Most viewers weren't aware of this; what kind of perception was being accessed C- subliminal
If a person hears two tones that differ in intensity just barely enough to be detected, the point of detection would be the ____ threshold. A- difference
An architect is designing apartments and wants them to be soundproof. She asks a psychologist what the smallest amount of sound is that can be heard. Her question is most related to A- the absolute threshold
You watch a movie with some scenes set in a noisy bar+some scenes w quietdialogue.The noisy scenes are v loud+during the quiet scenes u can hear most o the talkin but u find tht if da actors drop their vol on some lines u cant hear wat they r saying.Dis s C- threshold
An audiologist is testing your hearing. She instructs you to raise your hand whenever you hear a tone through headphones…..The smallest intensity of a stimulus that you can detect 50 percent of the time is D- the absolute threshold
u [email protected] friendsaptmnt4 abigparty @ daend o da sem.Wen u1starrive,damusic is so loud tht it hurts ur ears.After a couple o hrs,the music is still at the same volume,but it doesnt bother u anymore+u like it.Dis change overtime describes da process o C- sensory adaptation
You can't feel the waistband of your underwear (though you know it is there). This is the result of C- sensory adaptation
Weber's Law is: A- jnd=k(S)
Regarding light, wavelength is the _____ as intensity is the ______. A- hue; brightness
The major purpose of the iris is to B- regulate the amount of light entering the eye
The clear membrane just in front of the iris through which light first passes is the C- cornea
Toward the center of the retina, there is an area that contains only cones. This area is called the B- fovea
Jane is having trouble sleeping. As she sits in bed looking around the darkened room, she notices that her peripheral vision seems to be better than her central vision. This is because peripheral vision B- depends on the rods
You try to note the incredibly fine details of a computer microchip through a magnifying glass. On which area of the retina are you focusing this image? D- fovea
The crossover point where the right visual field information goes to the left hemisphere is called the D- optic chiasm
The ____ is held in place by ligaments attached to the ciliary muscle. When the muscles contract, the shape of this structure is changed B- lens
The main function of rods and cones is to D- transduce light
Pavlovs dog automatically salivated to food because food is an innate C- UCS
an example of an innate stimulus-response connection is A- a sneezing in response to sniffing pepper
In pavlova classic study on classical conditioning, the bell was the …. before conditioning and the …. after conditioning had occurred A- neutral stimulus; conditioned stimulus
Marcia is romantically involved with john. John is jerk, relationship end. One day she gets whiff of john cologne and former feelings came back. The good feelings were triggered in response to the smell of John's cologne. This is an example of B- spontaneous recovery
Pavlovs dog salivates each time he hears a bell. Now, however, after several trials of salivating to the bell and NOT receiving any food, the dog stops salivating. What happened? B- extinction has occurred
Beautiful women often are purposely assoc. w/ products so that pos. emotional arousal is elicited in intended audience.In one ad, a women is shown w/ red corvette. What can you expect to happen w/ those who see this TV ad? D- The ad will work best if the corvette precedes the appearance of the beautiful woman in the TV ad.
Leonard is a heroin addict. He is careful not to buy bad batch. He sully shoots up in his own place. But now at friends b/c need fix badly. He's never done drugs at friends. He injects his normal safe dosage of heroin but almost dies. What happened? B- The effect of the heroin was inc b/w Leonard injected it in a strange environment.
Thorndike's law of effect is the basis of S-R theory. In other words, learning is a function of the consequences of A- Trial and error
Melvin is a new third grade teacher. He wants to encourage students to complete assign. Most students fail to complete even though capable. From a behavioral perspective, what should Melvin do? B- Melvin should shape students by selectively reinforcing gradual approximations to the desired goal of completing 100% of the assignments.
Joyce habitually played lottery every sat. night. She stops and goes several sweeps w/o buying lottery ticket. Last sat she has urge to buy and does. What two operant conditioning processes can explain Joyc's lon-time habit and habit's reoccurrence? A- partial reinforcement effect; spontaneous recovery
Positive punishment….. and negative reinforcers…… A- weakens behavior; strengthens behaviors
which of the following is an example of negative reinforcement? A- waking up a few seconds BEFORE your alarm clock goes off in order to avoid the obnoxious alarm sound
Allowing a first grade class 20 minutes of recess time whenever they successfully complete all their seat work utilizes an operant conditioning technique known as the D- Premack principle
Your psychology assignment is to observe and list any behaviors of your relatives that indicate learning. Which of the following should be included on your list? C- Your little brother whines whenever he wants something.
according to Tolman's views on purposive learning C- you work hard all week, because you get paid on friday
New york city residents tend to over-estimate the size of their city relative to other cities in the rest of the country. This distortion of New yorker's concept of their physical world illustrates the fact that their…. have an egocentric component. A- Cognitive maps
One day, on the way home from work, you explore new street. You are surprised it could be sued as alternate route. Later there is a major accident and you use this route home. This is an example of B- latent learning
Which of the following is an example of instinctive drift? C- A pig shoves an object on the ground instead of learning to carry it in his mouth.
The person most closely associated with the study of insight in chimpanzees is D- Wolfgang Kohler
Which of the following is NOT one of the processes involved in observational learning? C- reinforcement
The person who conducted the BoBo doll study was A- Albert Bandura
Breland and Breland taught raccoon how to put coin into metal container for food reinforcement. Soon raccoon starts rubbing coin and dipping nor dropping. This is an example of what the Brelands call C- instinctive drift
The opening vignette of the memory chapter discusses the amazing memory ability of a 59 yr old man, Akira Haraguchi, to recite digits of pi. What process in the human memory system was utilized in this feat? C- retrieval
Near the center of the retina there is a spot where there are no rods and no cones; this is because of the C- optic nerve
Bottom-up processing involves analysis that begins with the B- sensory receptors
If a child asks you why we can see colors, and you want to answer according to the trichromatic theory of color vision, you might tell him it is because there are ___ different types of cones in the retina B- 3
Imagine that you are a server in a fancy restaurant. When taking orders without writing anything down, which memory process will be used first? A- selective attention
Your mom is always giving you grief about the way you study. You explain multitask. Is your position supported by the information presented in the textbook? D- No; studies have confirmed that indic. do NOT do well on memory tests of info that was acquired while performing other tasks.
Kevin is studying for vocal test. When he studies word "braggart", he thinks of how friend billy acts whenever he gets new toy. According to textbook, Kevin is processing this word at a C- Deep level
Steve is studying for vocal test. When he studies the word "sail" he notices that it rhymes with "jail". Steve is processing this word at a B- Intermediate level
According to Atkinson-Shiffrin theory of memory, memory storage involves which of the following three systems? A- Sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory
You are engrossed in your favorite TV show in living room. Your roommate yells for you to bring flyswatter to kitchen. You ask roommate to repeat herself. Before she replies the words play through your mind. This is an example of B- echoic memory
The sensory memory for which of the following have been studied LEAST? A- smell
Imagine that you were a participant in Sperling's classic study on iconic memory. Why aren't you able to identify all the letters presented on the screen? A- In order to identify the letters, you need enough time to transfer the letter information from sensory memory to short term memory.
Short-term memory has a …. capacity than sensory memory and a … duration. A- More limited; longer
George Miller's classic paper on the "magical" seven plus or minus two phenemoeno refers to a person's A- Memory span*
Chunking involves B- Elaborative encoding of information
When asked to memorize the 15 letters, C I A C B S A B C F B I I R S, Mary reorganizes them into CIA, CBS, ABC, FBI, and IRS. Mary used the tactic of C- Chunking
Joey calls 411 to get the phone # of a friend. Joey doesn't have anything with which to write #. Mentally rehearses # over and over. Joey momentarily stops rehearsing # to listen to operator. From a memory processing perspective, what will happen now? Interrupting rehearsal will cause the # to be lost from Joey's short-term memory.
Unrehearsed information stored in short-term memory lasts about D- 30 seconds
In Baddeley's working memory system, the central executive has two assistants, the … and the …. A- Phonological loop; visuospatial working memory
You and your roommate are both taking spanish this smelter. You are getting an "A" in the course but your roommate os getting a C. According to research by Harry Bahrick, A- In the year 2058 you will remember your spanish vocabulary better than your roommate.
You decide to go to a hypnotist to try and stop smoking. The hypnotist asks you to remember what it was like before you started smoking. Which memory system will you use to cpmly with this request? C- Your episodic memory
Dr. Kestler always gives her student a pep talk before each major course exam. She carefully chooses words in pep talk. Emphasize intelligence and prep. Dr. Brown teaches same course but does opp. Wrns students of low grade. Given research, by barge on pr A- Dr. Kestler's students will perform better than Dr. Brown's students on the exam.
Your friend, vince, suffered serious brain injury to his cerebellum in a motorcycle accident. What effect will this have on Vince's life C- he won't remember how to ride his motorcycle
an example of the hierarchical representation of information is C- the table of contents of your textbook
People very quickly adapt to the procedures and behaviors appropriate in church. The general knowledge of how to behave in church is called a C- script or schema
According to the semantic network view of memory, memories are A- abstract concepts
Research on the neural mechanisms of human memory has used….. as research subjects D- sea slugs (aplysia)
long-term potentiation is a concept that explains B- how memory functions at the neuronal level.
Margaret fell down her basement stairs and suffered serious injury to her amygdala. What memory problems is she most likely to have now? C- margaret will have difficulty with emotional memories
episodic and semantic memories are thought to be stored in the C- cerebellum, temporal lobe and prefrontal cortex
george just graduated college & is going on his first big job interview. He has learned there are 2 other applicants for job. B/c of info on serial position effect that he learned in psy class, George asks to be first or last candidate interviewed. Why? A- the serial position effect predicts either the first or the last job applicant interviewed will be remembered better than the applicant interviewed second.
Samantha prides herself in never forgetting a face, although she frequently cannot put the correct name with a specific fave. According to your textbook, sam is rly saying that she A- is better at recognition than at recall
Your roommate, Delores, asks your advice on how to best study for her final exams. B/c your knowledge of context dependent memory, you recommend that she C- study quietly in the classroom in which she is to take her exam
As a young child, Stevie liked listening to instrumental music tapes from the fifties and sixties. In his college music class. Composes piece "in head for yrs". F for plagiarism. What most likely happened here? A- Stevie remembered a musical piece from his childhood which primed him to believe he "created" the same piece.
Karl Lashley conducted a series of experiments aimed at finding out where memories were stored in the brain. He explained that he was looking for … or the original memory trace. A- Engram
Although used often, the comparison b/w the computer and human info processing is oversimplified. Why? A- computer information input is pre-coded and ambiguities are removed before processing.
Which of the following statements indicate a problem with the classical model of structuring concepts? D- characteristics of a concept are not always easy to define
which of the following would NOT be a defining property of an airplane? B- it is silver
Jim needs a backyard shed to house his motorcycle. Although he has never built a shed, he decides to build one and buys a book of professionally drawn detailed shed plans. In this situation, Jim is using a A- algorithm
What is the main difference b/w an algorithm and a heuristic? C- an algorithm always leads to a correct solution.
You have to study four chapters of info for next test. I f you decide to use problem solving strategy of subgoaling, you would do which of the following? B- you would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in organized sequence.
Monique routinely uses shredder to shred junk mail.gets idea to empty shredder and use junk for packing. Monique has D- overcome functional fixedness
Human beings will often reason from the specific to the general. That is, people often will form general rules and concepts based on specific experiences and examples. This type of reasoning is termed B- inductive reasoning
Your roommate is confined there is strong connection b/w genius and mental disorders. Several examples come to mind so you agree with her immediately. What happened here? A- The availability heuristic caused you to come an erroneous conclusion.
Your mother's and sister's voices have the same pitch and loudness, but you can tell them apart on the telephone. This is due to the perceptual quality or ____ of their voices. A- timbre
The intensity of a sound is measured in C- decibels
You are listening to music with a wide dynamic range. In the world of amplitude, what do the louder and softer sounds have to do with the air and your ears? A- With louder sounds, air is pressing with more force on your ears; with softer sounds, air is pressing with less force on your ears
The different pitches of the beeps you here on a touch-tone telephone are due to differences in the ____ of the beeps D- frequency
The pinna is the ____ which is quite useful for collecting sounds from the environment A- external part of the ear
What is the major function of the hammer, anvil, and stirrup of the middle ear? C- to amplify vibrations and pass them on to the inner ear
When sound waves enter the ear canal, they first A- vibrate the eardrum
Your sister and brother-in-law are expecting their first child. They have chosen to attend Lamaze classes…. which of the following pain control techniques, which is emphasized in the Lamaze method of childbirth training? D- focused breathing
Gate control theory is associated with B- pain
Which is true about the human tongue and sweet, sour, salty, and bitter tastes? C- The human tongue can sense all of these tastes, but certain locations are more sensitive to certain tastes
Your doctor has given you some awful-tasting pills. To minimize the aversive taste, where should you place the pill on your tongue? C- middle
Which of the following is involved in smell? B- the olfactory epithelium
Visual stimuli that are close together are usually seen as belonging together; this is called B- proximity
You are reading a typed report. The typist has made some errors: some words are missing a letter and some sentences are missing a l…humans display a tendency to mentally complete forms and figures that are actually incomplete. This tendency is known as C- closure
Figure is to ground as ____ is to ____. D- a white cloud; a blue sky
When looking at these letters XXX XXX XXX XXX we tend to see 4 groups of 3 X's rather than 12 individual X's due to the principle of B OR C- similarity or proximity
Looking at a quarter in your hand casts a different image on your retina compared to looking at a quarter across the room, yet we know that the quarter is the same and retains the same dimensions. This phenomenon is known as A- size constancy
The tendency for perceptions of objects to remain relatively unchanged in spite of changes in raw sensations is called B- perceptual constancy
When reading a book, it doesn't matter whether you are inside or outside because the blank ink of the words on the white pages looks the same. This demonstrates an artist's ability to capitalize on C- brightness constancy
Which depth cue accounts for why parallel lines appear to grow closer together the farther away they are? D- linear perspective
According to Freud, mental processes that occur without a person being aware of them are B- unconscious
Jordan has decided to go to sleep early. Although her eyes are closed and she is very relaxed, she has not yet fallen asleep. An EEG is most likely to indicate the presence of B- alpha waves
Which of the following best characterizes a night's sleep? C- Our depth of sleep alternates up and down many times
Circadian rhythm refers to B- a pattern of biological functioning that occurs on a roughly 24-hour schedule
Dreams occurring during ____ sleep are briefer, less fragmented, and less likely to involve visual images compared to _____ sleep. B- non-REM; REM
You participate in a sleep study at a university clinic. The researchers measure your body chemistry while you are sleeping. Which hormones do they find follows a circadian rhythm and peaks just before you wake? C- cortisol
Which of the following disorders is characterized by the temporary cessation of breathing while asleep? B- sleep apnea
Narcolepsy is a disorder involving C- periodic attacks of uncontrollable sleepiness
Nightmares are to ____ as night terrors are to ____. A- REM sleep; slow wave sleep
Which of the following statements about sleepwalking is false? D- It is a sign of abnormal behavior in adults.

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