ps101 psychology cue cards to help with studying for ps101 at wlu

Term Definition
Cognition Psychology (long) Newer. popular now. Focuses on cognition, mental processes, thinking, remembering, focusing attention. More on the nature side of the argument. We are NOT a blank slate, our minds are predisposed to learn certain things. work on changing thought processes
Cognitive Psychology mental processes, thinking, reasoning
Neuroscience Functions of the brain, parts of the brain and what they do, structure
Evolutionary Psychology Natural Selection. Controversial because you can't actually evaluate it, it's retrospective.
Positive Psychology Positive experiences, Positive traits, Positive communities. Look at the positive traits like happiness and how to achieve them rather than focusing on how to fix the bad stuff. Oversimplifies by just wanting to be happy, as if you can skip the bad.
Applied Psychology Applying concept to helping people, solving everyday problems, counselling.
Clinical Psychology form of applied psychology, concerned with diagnosing and treating psychological problems
Academic Psychology The ones that do the research in the first place. Find the theories that we are later taught. Professors.
Organisational Psychology Using applied psychology in the business world
Developmental Psychology Genetics and everything from prenatal and conception to death
Social Psychology Social influences of people, how we perceive social interactions, aggression, altruism, influence, persuasion, clinic, psychology in court.
Experimental Psychology Do experiments. Learning, sensation and perception
Physiological Psychology Functions and structure of different parts of our brains
Personality Psychology development of personality, different perspectives, trait theory
Psychometrics The science of measuring mental capacities and processes. The tests created to measure loyalty, etc.
Educational Psychologist helps with curriculum set up
Industrial Psychology Advertising, human resources, personality tests for perspective new employees
Hippocrates disease has physical explanation, excess or lack of 4 bodily fluids determine a persons personality +well being. 1st to recognise rest, fresh air +good food important, diagnosed Pneumonia and epilepsy, brain=mental life, direct observation some disection
Psychology the scientific study of behaviour and mental processes
Descartes Dualist, believes in body and mind. One of the first to talk about reflexes
Plato only believes in mind
Aristotle The most scientific, empiricist, only believes in body, association theory
Wundt Made psychology an independent discipline, 1st psychology laboratory, metronome experiment, father of psychology, started APA to advance the field so everyone heads in same direction
Structualism Maybe if we break down consciousness into ts elements we will be able to understand it. First attempt at making psychology a science. It didn't work cause consciousness doesn't break into elements. Created by Wundt. Named by Titchner
Functionalism Study the function of consciousness, what does it do for us? Memory and focus. Everything serves a purpose. William James
Darwin Evolution, Fitness, Finches, Natural Selection. Why not study animals to understand humans.
Behaviourism John Watson, hard core blank slate believer, only observable behaviour should be studied. Nurture belief. Stimulus response, Associating behaviour to be triggered by stimuli, Explains reflexes and complex behaviours
Freud Psychoanalysis, unconscious mind, nurture, attachment theory (our early attachments come from our attachments to our parents), Neurobiological problems come from repressed memories, once brought to the surface you get better, dream analysis
Skinner Radical Behaviourism, we are controlled by our environments, no free will, lever experiments, we repeat things we think lead to something good, everything we do is something we learned from doing in the past and being rewarded the first time. Conditioning
Humanist optimistic. needs. trans-personal psychology. change our behaviour/become better people, learn from behaviourism factors but have free will, rise above psychological problems, don't want to be free of problems just want to reach highest potential. Maslow
Themes in psychology Empirical, theoretically diverse, evolves in a sociohistorical context, determined by multiple causes, shaped by cultural heritage, heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour, people's experience of the world is highly subjective
Deductive Reasoning theory->predictions->observation/experiment
Inductive Reasoning observation/experiment-> predictions-> theory
Hypothetico-Deductive Reasoning hypothesis->observation/experiment-> hypothesis is supported or not: theory built
Percentile Score the percentage of people that score a particular score
hypothesis specific statement that is objectively falsifiable
Pseudopsychology not based on the scientific method yet takes on the appearance of science
Variable a condition, event, situation. Independent- the thing we change, Dependant- the thing we measure to see how it was affected by the individual variable
Operationalize to develop a working definition of a variable that allows you to test it
Descriptive Research Methods pursue goal of description to determine the existence of a relationship between the variables of interest
experiments allow us to explain the CAUSES of behaviour
Case Study Focus on a single person, disadvantages: affected by researcher bias, cannot confidently generalise to larger population, don't know if you are looking at a norm or an exception
Naturalistic Observation watch as unobtrusively as possible, more reflective of real world behaviour, researcher bias. Hawthorne effect- more productive when watched. Reactivity- having differently due to being watched.
Survey ask series of questions, different available data, measure how strong the relationship is between two variables of interest. Social desirability- answering in believed socially acceptable ways. Response set- answering the same all the time
Double Blind neither the participant or the observer know which group is which
mean arithmetic average of the scores of all participants in a group
Research ethics boards provide oversight in academic and other research settings across the world
Confounding Variable extraneous variable that we didn't measure that affects the study instead of being controlled
Descriptive statistics statistics used to describe and summarise data
Inferential Statistics statistics used to draw conclusions about research data
ungrouped frequency distribution a count of the number of times each specific data point or score appears in a data set
grouped frequency distribution a count of the number of times specific data points fall into a range of values in a data set
Histograms a bar chart showing the number of times specific data points fall into a range of values in a data set
Frequency Polygon a ling graph depicting a grouped frequency distribution, which is created by connecting the midpoints of each class of data
measure of central tendancy numbers used to summarise data sets
median the data set value that represents the midpoint of a ordered set of numbers
mode the most frequent or most common value in a data set
range the difference between the smallest and largest value in a data set
normal distribution/bell curve a symmetrical bell-shaped distribution in which most scored are in the middle with smaller groups of equal size at either end
scatterplot a graph or plot of the values of one variable or measure associated with the values on the variable or measure
positive / direct relationship a relationship where as the value of one variable increases so do values in another associated variable
negative/ inverse relationship a relationship where as the value of one variable increases values in another associated variable decrease
coefficient of determination the degree to which values on the variable can be predicted by knowing the values of the other variable
Sample a group or set of people or items drawn from a larger population
population the entire group of individuals about whom we hope to learn
random sample a group or set made by randomly selecting people or items from a larger population
hypothesis testing testing a statement or claim about a population using a sample and in its simplest form, looking at experiments and control grup differences
significance level/ rejection level the level of risk researchers would be willing to take in terms of making an incorrect conclusion p<.05 or p<.01
correlation coefficient range -1 to +1. both variable get bigger=positive correlation, 1 decreased=negative correlation, larger the number=stronger correlation+ tighter packed graph. 0=no linear , 1= perfect, .3 or above means some kind of relationship. can't tell causality
standard deviation an index of how much the participants scores vary from one another within each group
steps to protect human participants obtain informed consent, protect confidentiality, make participation voluntary, do not use deception or incomplete disclosure, provide complete debriefing
Goals of science measurement and description, understanding and prediction, application and control
measures of variability indicators that tell how different the values are within a data set
Varience a calculated indicator of the degree to which values in a data set defer from the mean. the average of squared deviations about the mean.
Standard deviation (technical) a deviation value is the squared root of the variance; it is a statistical index of how much scored vary within a group
Positively Skewed Distribution a distribution where most values occur at the lower end of the scale
negatively skewed distribution a distribution where most values occur at the upper end of the scale
measures of association descriptive statistics that quantify and summarise the degree of relationship or association between variable
Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient a statistic indicating the degree of association or relationship between two variables or measures ranging from -1 to +1
null hypothesis an assertion that in the underlying population from which the sample was obtained, there is no difference between the average performance of individuals in one group compared to the other
alternative hypothesis an assertion that in the underlying population from which the sample was obtained there is a difference between the average performance of individuals in one group compared to another
sampling distribution the theoretical distribution of a sample statistic; for example, the difference between two sample means taken from a population
effect size a standardised measure that reflects the degree of relationship or size of the difference between two or more variables
medulla responsible for breathing, heartbeat and other vital life functions
PET harmless substance injected into blood, radiation detectors scan brain, active areas have more blood flow + show more radiation
DTI Newest, measures orientation + integrity of white matter, produces colour map
CT identifying cancer, brain diseases or blood vessel abnormalities, faster, used in emergencies, cheaper
Examining autopsy tissue advantage: see what brain looks like, disadvantage: doesn't show how system worked when alive and using it
Neuroplasticity The brains ability to create new neural pathways as a result of experience or following an injury
Reuptake transmitters drain back into presynaptic neuron and recycled for future use
enzymatic degradation the breaking down of the neurotransmitter by enzymes, reabsorbed by cell and used to synthesis additional neurotransmitter molecules
FMRI detection of changes in blood flow detects oxygenated haemoglobin after exposed to magnetic pulses
Post synaptic potentials electrical events in post synaptic neurons that occur when a neurotransmitter binds to one of its receptors
excitatory post synaptic potentials post synaptic depolarisation increase the chance the neuron will fire
hyperpolarize the inside of the neuron membrane becomes MORE negative relative to the outside
Depolarization the inside of the neuron membrane becomes LESS negative relative to the outside
Resting Potential The electrical charge of a neuron when it is at rest -70mv
Concentration Gradient The difference in concentration of sodium ions inside and outside of the neuron
Parasympathetic Nervous System calms body to conserve energy and restore the status quo
sympathetic nervous system arouses body to expend energy and respond to threat
Autonomic Nervous System involuntary, controls involuntary basic life functions such as heart beat and response to stress
Somatic Nervous System voluntary, controls voluntary muscles and conveys info to the CNS
Brain directs coherent and organised control over the body
Spinal Chord sends info to and from the brain and PNS ans controls reflexes
Peripheral Nervous System carries info to and from the CNS
Central Nervous System controls all mental and physical processes
Efferent Neurons neurons that carry info from the CNS to the muscles+ glands
Neurotransmitter receptors proteins in the membranes of neurons that bind to neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters specialised chemicals that travel across synapses to allow communication between neurons
Myelin a fatty white substance formed from glial cells that insulates the axons of many neurons
Ion Channels pores in the cell membrane that can open and close to allow certain ions in and out of the cell
Ependymal cells line walls of ventricles
ventricles fluid filled spaces within the brain
Myelin Sheath a type of glial cell that covers segments of the axon to insulate and speed up the neural impulses
Axon carries the neurons message to the terminal buttons
dendrites receive info from other neurons and sensory receptors
afferent neurons neurons that carry sensory info from the body to the CNS
Glutamate learning, movement (ketamine)
Dopamine movement, reward learning (cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine)
Serotonin activity levels, mood regulation(ecstasy, LSD, antidepressants)
GABA learning, anxiety regulation, low in people with anxiety disporders(Valium, zolpidem)
Acetocoline learning, attention(nicotine)
Norepinephrine attention, arousal(adderall)
PONS involved with respiration, movement, walking, sleep and dreaming
Thalmus relays sensory messages to cortex
Reticular Formation helps screen incoming sensory information and controls arousal
Brain Stem Helps regulate reflex activities critical for survival
Hippocampus Limbic System Structure, involved in memory
Hypothalamus controls the endocrine system and the SNS and regulates behaviours (fighting)
Cerebral Cortex Thin outer layer responsible for most complex behaviours and higher mental processes
Cerebellum part of the brain, near the back of head, important for motor cordination
Endocrine System the system that controls levels of hormones throughout the body
nucleus accumbens a brain area important for motivation and reward
amygdala brain area involved in processing info about emotions, particularly fear
Pituitary Gland brain structure, plays central role in controlling the endocrine system
cerebellum coordinates fine muscle movement, balance and some perception and cognition
phylogem the development of unique species over time
occipital lobe lobe of the cortex at the back of the skull important for processing very visual information
Frontal Lobe lobe of the cortex involved in many functions including movement + speech production
Wernicke's Area left side of most human brains, located in temporal lobe, important for language comprehension
substantia nigra brain region important in fluidity of movement and inhibiting movements
corpus callosum bundle of axons that allows communication from one side of the cortex to the other
Broca's area a brain region located in the frontal lobe near the moter cortex that is important for speech production
Prefrontal lobe portion of the frontal cortex involved in higher order thinking such as memory, moral reasoning and planning
primary motor strip involved in control of voluntary (non-reflexive) movement
Somatosensory strip an area of the parietal cortex the processes tactile info coming from our body parts
MRI strong magnetic field to produce 3D images of the anatomy and physiology. clearer than CT, good for detecting soft tissue injuries in tendons and ligaments. Can't be used on people with metal in them
Testing behaviour of patients with damage to certain parts loss of certain functions shows what certain parts of brain are responsible for. Relies on inference, can't compare undamaged brain of same person, can't make statements about cause and effect
Animal studies microscopically, electrically, temporarily activating + deactivating parts of brain, targeting specific areas for destruction
EEGs recording brain activity through multiple electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp. noninvasive. learn about activity of the brain during certain tasks. only provide a summary of surface activity over large expanse of scalp
Neuroimaging techniques that allow for studying brain activity and structure by obtaining visual images in awake humans. CT, MRI, DTI

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