Positioning CH 8 Cervical and Thoracic Spine

Question Answer
What is a complex succession of many bones? Vertebrae
What begins at the base of the skull and extends distally into the sacrum? Spinal Canal
What are cushion like disks that are tightly bound to the vertebrae for spinal stability, but allow for flexibility and movement of the vertebral column? Invertebral Disks
How many vertebrae are in the cervical vertebrae? 7
How many vertebrae are in the Thoracic vertebrae? 12
How many vertebrae are in the Lumbar vertebrae? 5
How many vertebrae make up the vertebrae column? 26
What is the first curve in the cervical region? First compensatory curve
What is the Normal compensatory concave curvature or cervical and lumbar spine? Lordosis
What is the normal exaggerated lumbar curvature with increased concavity? Kyphosis
What is the abnormal lateral curvature? Scoliosis
What contains or holds the spinal cord? Vertebral Foramen
What are the two parts of the intervertebral disks? Annulus fibrous & Nucleus Pulposus
What is the first compensatory curve in a child? Cervical Curve
Where does the spinal cord taper off? L1 (First lumbar vertebrae) "Conus Medullaris"
What is another name for Zygapophyseal joints? Apophyseal joint
Typical adult vertebrae are separated by tough fibrocartilaginous disks between the bodies of every two vertebrae…Except? Between the first and second vertebrae
Which special projection demonstrates anteroposterior mobility? Lateral C spine (Hypertension and Hyperflexion)
Which projection best demonstrates a Shoveler's fracture? Lateral C spine
What does the AP axial vertebral arch projection demonstrate? Articular Pillars
Which special projection will project the dens in the shadow of the foramen magnum? Fuchs (AP) or Judd (PA) method
How do u rotate the patient for posterior and anterior obliques of the c-spine? Rotate the body/head 45 degrees. Anterior-Direct CR 15 degrees cauded to C4. Posterior- Direct CR 15 degrees cephalad to C4.
Why are anterior obliques of the C-spine preferred? Reduce Thyroid Dose
On T-spine obliques, what is the difference in the body rotation from the plane of the table or the lateral position? Rotate the body 20 degrees for a true lateral to create a 70 degree from plane of table.
T/F C1 has a vertebral body False
What projection is used to visualize the C1/C2 vertebrae? Open Mouth projection
What is wrong if the top of the intervertebral foramina are closed on a C- spine oblique? Rotation of the neck
What is wrong if the bottom intervertebral foramina are closed on a C-spine oblique? Rotation of the body
What is wrong if ALL the intervertebral foramina are closed on a C-spine oblique? Incorrect Cr angle
On an AP Axial C-spine projection, What is the CR angle for it to be erect and supine? Supine-15 degrees Erect- 20 degrees
On an AP Oblique C-spine projection, what SID is recommended? 40 to 72in (Longer SID is recommended)
When is the Cervicothoracic (Swimmers) position used? When the C7 to T1 isn't visualized on a lateral C spine.
Typical adult vertebrae are separated by tough fibrocartilaginous disks between every two vertebrae. What is the exception? The first and second cervical vertebrae
What vertebrae are considered typical cervical vertebrae? C3-C6
Where are the Zygapophyseal joints located? Between the vertebrae of C2-C7 and are located at right angles or 90 degrees to the midsaggital plane. ONLY visualized on a true lateral.
What is the most distinctive feature of the C2 vertebrae? Dens (Odontoid Process)
What vertebrae are considered to be typical thoracic vertebrae? T5-T8
What does the T1-T10 vertebrae articulate with? Facets, that articulate with the tubercles of ribs 1-10.
What does T11 and T12 articulate with? Costovertebral joints
What position is required to open up the Zygapophyseal joints? A 70 to 75 degree oblique position with a perpendicular CR.
What cervical vertebrae have distinctive features that make it easy to view on a radiograph? C1 and C7
At what vertebral level is the Mastoid process located? C1
At what vertebral level is the gonin located? C3
At what vertebral level is the thyroid cartilage or Adams apple located? C5
At what vertebral level is the vertebrae prominens located? C7 or T1
At what vertebral level is the jugular notch located? T2and T3
At what vertebral level is the Sternal angle located? T4 and T5
At what vertebral level is the xiphoid process located? T9 and T10
Thoracic spines are usually visualized radiographically with the patient recumbent with what exception? Scoliosis examinations
Clay Shoveler's fracture- Hyperflexion of the neck, that results in avulsion fractures on the spinous process of C6-T1
Hangman's fracture- Extreme hypertension, in which the dens is pressed posteriorly against the brainstem.
Jefferson fracture- Splintered or crushed at site of impact
Odontoid fracture- Where the dens extend into the lateral masses or arches of C1.
Teardrop Burst fracture- Compression with hyperflexion in the cervical region. Usually causing quadriplegia
Facets unilateral sublaxation and bilateral locks- Only one zygapophyseal joint may be out of alignment, with a unilateral subluxation.
HERNIATED NUCLEUS PULPOSUS- Presses against the spinal cord causing severe pain and numbness that may radiate into lower extremities.
Osteoporosis- Loss of bone mass
Scheuermann's disease- Disease that results in a abnormal spinal curvature of kyphosis and scoliosis. Is more common in boys than girls.
Transitional vertebrae- An incidental finding that visualizes an enlarged transverse process that occurs at the cervical and lumbar ribs.

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