Pharmacology Pharmacology Flash Cards

Question Answer
What is pharmacology? It is the study of drugs and their actions on the body.
What is a drug? Drugs are foreign substance placed into the body.
What is a medication? A medication is a drug used to diagnose, treat and prevent disease.
What are the four main sources of drug? Plants, animals, minerals and laboratory (synthetic)
What is pharmacokinetics? It is how the drug is absorbed, distributed and eliminated from the body.
Metabolism of a drug is called _____________________. Biotransformation
What is a suspension? Preparations in which the solid does not dissolve in the solvent; if left alone, the solid portion will precipitate out.
What is an emulsion? Suspensions with an oily substance in the solvent; even when mixed, globules of oil separate out of the solution.
What is a spirit? Solution of a volatile drug in alcohol.
What is an elixir? Alcohol and water solvent, often with flavorings added to improve the taste.
What is a syrup? Sugar, water, and a drug solution.
What is an agonist? An agonist binds to a receptor and causes it to initiate the expected response.
What is an antagonist? An antagonist binds to a site but block agonists and prevent the receptor from initiating the expected response.
What drug is an antagonist for an opiate overdose? Narcan
What drug is an antagonist for an benzodiazepine overdose? Flumazenil (Romazicon)
The "Flight-or-flight" is known as what branch of the Autonomic Nervous System? Sympathetic
The "Feed-or-breed" is know as what branch of the Autonomic Nervous System? Parasympathetic
What is Pharmacodynamics? It is how a medication interacts with the body to cause its effects
What is Pharmacokinetics? Pharmacokinetics is how a medication is absorbed, distributed, metabolized (biotransformed), and excreted
What is an Agonist? An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor of a cell and triggers a response by that cell
What is an Antagonist? An antagonist is a substance that interferes with or inhibits the physiological action of another
What is a Bolus? A bolus is a single, oftentimes large dose of medication
What is Cumulative Action? Cumulative action is when a drug is administered in several doses, causing an increased effect. This is due to a quantitative buildup of the drug in the blood
What is the definition of a drug? Drugs are foreign substances placed into the body
What is a Depressant? A depressant is a medication that decreases or lessens a body function or activity
Define Habituation: Habituation is the physical or psychological dependence on a drug
______________ is a reaction to a substance that is normally more profound than seen in the normal population. Hypersensitivity
______________ is an individual reaction to a drug that is unusually different from that seen in the rest of the population. Idiosyncrasy
An _____________ is a medical condition in which a drug has proven to be of therapeutic value. Indication
________________ is the enhancement of one drug’s effect by another. Potentiation
Patients who do not respond to a drug are said to be ____________ to it. Refractory
________________ are unavoidable, undesired effects frequently seen even in therapeutic doses. Side effects
A ______________ is a drug that enhances or increases a bodily function. Stimulant
_______________ is the combined actions of two drugs. The action of the drugs together is much stronger than the effect of either of the drugs given separately. Synergism
When a patient is receiving a drug on a long-term basis, they require larger and larger dose of the drug to achieve a therapeutic dose – these patients are said to have built up a _______________ to the drug. Tolerance
An ____________ is a side effect that proves to be harmful to a patient. Untoward Effect
The most detailed name given to a drug is called it’s ____________ name. Chemical name
The ___________ name of a drug is usually suggested by the manufacturer and is confirmed by the United States Name Council – this is the name we should use to prevent confusion. Generic name
A drugs ____________________ name is the name that is listed in the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Official name
What are the four main sources of drugs? Plants, animals, minerals, laboratory (synthetic).
Under the Controlled Substance Act of 1970, a Schedule _____ Drug is defined as a drug that has high abuse potential, may lead to severe dependence and has no accepted medical indications. Schedule 1
What are the Six Rights of Medication Administration? Right medication, Right dose, Right time, Right route, Right patient, Right documentation
_______________ is when a medication or hormone causes the formation of new or more receptor sits than normal on a cell. Up Regulation
A ______________ is a medical or a physiological condition that is present that would make it harmful for you to administer a medication to a patient. Contraindication
A ______________ is the binding of an antagonist that causes a deformity of the binding site that prevents an agonist from fitting into and binding to that site. Noncompetitive antagonist
An _____________ is a medication that binds to a receptor and stimulates some of its effects but blocks others. Agonist-Antagonist (partial agonist)
________________ is the binding of a medication or hormone to a target cell receptor that causes the number of receptor sites to decrease. Down Regulation
An ______________ determines the amount and purity of a given chemical in a preparation in the laboratory. Assay
According to the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, a medication that has a high abuse potential, may lead to severe dependence, but has accepted medical interventions would be classified as a Schedule _______ drug. II
During the first trimester of pregnancy the ingestion of _____________ drugs may potentially deform, injure, or kill the fetus. Teratogenic Drugs – which means of or relating to substances or agents that can interfere with normal embryonic development – (ACE inhibitors like Captopril), acne meds, alcohol, some antibiotics, anticoagulants (Coumadin), a lot of anti-depressants meds.
How many drops does it take a Microdrip to produce 1 mL? 60 gtts
A _______________ solution contains large proteins that cannot pass through the capillary membranes. Because of this, this solution tends to remain in the circulatory system for a longer amount of time. Colloids, or colloidal solutions
A _________________ solution has a higher solute concentration than do the cells. When administered to the normally hydrated patient, they cause fluid to shift out of the intracellular compartment and into the extracellular compartment. Hypertonic – A solute is a substance that creates a solution when dissolved in a solvent – Water is the most common solvent and is often referred to as a “universal solvent”
An __________________ solution has a tonicity equal to that of blood plasma. In a normally hydrated patient, this solution will not cause a significant fluid or electrolyte shift. Isotonic – tonicity is the measurement of osmotic pressure gradient
_____________ is the movement of water out of the plasma across the capillary membrane and into the interstitial space. Filtration

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