Pathophysiology

Question Answer
Define Osmosis: Osmosis is the movement of a solvent(usually water) in a solution from an area of a lower solute concentration to an area of high solute concentration
Define Diffusion: It is the passive movement of molecules through a membrane from an area of greater concentration to an area of lower concentration
Define Facilitated Diffusion: Process in which carrier proteins transport large molecules across the cell membrane. Example – Insulin helps glucose enter the cell.
If a solution has a higher solute concentration than that of the cells it is termed to be: Hypertonic
If a solution has a lower solute concentration than that of the cells it is termed to be: Hypotonic
If a solution has an equal solute concentration to that of the cells it is termed to be: Isotonic
How does the sodium / potassium pump work? What does it pump into the cell and what does it pump out? The Na/K pumps works with energy (ATP) – it pumps 3 molecules of sodium out of the cell and 2 molecules of potassium back into the cell.
The equal sharing of electrons results in what type of chemical bond? Covalent
The total number of neutrons and protons in an atom is referred to as the __________________. Mass Number
The number of protons in an atom's nucleus is referred to as the ____________________. Atomic Number
What is another word for tumor? Neoplasm
A neoplasm that is not cancerous is also called a _______________ tumor. Benign
A neoplasm that is cancerous is also called a _______________ tumor. Malignant
The outermost shell of an atom is referred to as the __________________ shell. Valence
The typical protein contains 200-300 amino acid molecules. A protein chain containing less than 10 amino acids is often called a ___________________ while a chain of greater than 10 amino acids is called a _________________. Peptide, Polypeptide
What is an enzyme? An enzymes is a substance that speeds up chemical reactions.
What is a normal pH level for a human? 7.35 – 7.45
If your patient has a pH level of 7.31 – is he acidotic or alkalotic? Acidotic
If your patient has a pH level of 7.48 – is he acidotic or alkalotic? Alkalotic
__________________________ occurs when the respiratory system cannot effectively eliminate all the carbon dioxide generated through metabolic activities in the peripheral tissues resulting in hypercapnia. Respiratory Acidosis
__________________________ occurs when the respiratory system eliminates too much carbon dioxide through hyperventilation resulting in hypocapnia. Respiratory Alkalosis
What is the most prevalent extracellular ion? Sodium
What is the most prevalent intracellular ion? Potassium
_________________ is made up of approximately 92% water, 6 – 7% proteins, and a small portion consisting of electrolytes, lipids, enzymes, clotting factors, glucose and other dissolved substances. Plasma
More than 99% of your blood cells are ______________________. Erythrocytes
What is considered to be the "Powerhouse" of the cell? The Mitochondria
An increase in the size of cells in a tissue or organ is referred to as ___________________. Hypertrophy
An decrease in the size of cells in a tissue or organ is referred to as ___________________. Atrophy
An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ is referred to as ___________________. Hyperplasia
In certain situations, a cell can change from one adult cell to another adult cell type – this process is called _______________________. Metaplasia
Abnormal or disordered growth in a cell is referred to as __________________. Dysplasia
The "Flight-or-flight" is known as what branch of the Autonomic Nervous System? Sympathetic
The "Feed-or-breed" is know as what branch of the Autonomic Nervous System? Parasympathetic
The state in which solutions on opposite sides of a semipermeable membrane are in equal concentrations describes a(n) ____________ stated. Isotonic
Define Anatomy Anatomy is the study of the internal and external structures of plants, animals, and the human body.
What is Macroscopic Anatomy? Also called Gross Anatomy – represents the study of the structures visible to the unaided or naked eye.
What is Microscopic Anatomy? Is the study of structures that can be seen and examined only with magnification aids, such as a microscope.
Define Physiology Physiology focuses on the functions and processes of the various structures that make up the human body.
Define Pathology It is the medical science that deals with all aspects of disease.
What is a disease? A disease is a condition in which the body fails to function normally.
Signs & Symptoms – What would be considered a Sign? Signs are more definitive, objective, obvious indicators of illness. They can be measured and expressed as numbers (ie. Vital signs)
Signs & Symptoms – What would be considered a Symptom? Symptoms are what a Patient tells you – They are more subjective and hard to measure.
Define Diagnosis Diagnosis is an identification of a disease determined by studying the patient's signs, symptoms, history, and results of diagnostic tests.
Define Prognosis Prognosis is the prediction of the outcome of a disease.
What is Etiology Etiology is the cause of the disease.
Define Homeostasis Homeostasis is the physiological process that monitors and maintains a stable internal environment or equilibrium.
What is a negative feedback loop? It is a feedback loop that opposes the stimulus
What is a positive feedback loop? It is a feedback loop that increases the magnitude of a change – also known as a vicious cycle.
What is an element? An element is the smallest unit that retains the unique chemical properties of that specific type of matter
What is an Atom? It is the smallest recognizable unit of an element.
What is a proton? It is a positively charged particle
What is an Electron? It is a negatively charged particle
What is a Neutron? It is a neutral particle
What is an acid? It is a chemical that can release hydrogen ions.
What is Hydrophilic? Molecules that like water
What is Hydrophobic? Molecules that don't like water
What is a solution? When one substance is dissolved in another the combination is called a solution.
What is a solute? The substance that is dissolved into the solution.
What is a solvent? The substance doing the dissolving, usually water in living things.
What is a Carbohydrate? Carbohydrates are sugars and starches
What is a Lipid? Lipids consist mainly of carbon and hydrogen – they have very little oxygen.
What is a Protein? Proteins are molecules made of long chains of amino acids.
What is a Nucleic Acid? The only two Nucleic Acids in nature are RNA and DNA. They are involved in controlling the activities of cells and are the molecules that contain your genetic code.
What is Metabolism? Metabolism refers to all the chemical operations going on within our bodies.
What is Anabolism? Anabolism is the process by which simpler compounds are built up and used to manufacture materials for growth, repair, and reproduction.
What is Catabolism? Catabolism is the process by which complex substances are broken down into simpler substances.
What is a Covalent Bond? A covalent bond is an atomic bond in which valence electrons are shared.
What does an Enzyme do? Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions, making them fast enough for your cells to use the materials.
What is the smallest unit of life? The cell – which is made up of molecules, which is made up of atoms.
A group of similar cells that perform a common function is known as a: Tissue
A group of tissues working together to perform a similar function is called an: Organ
A group of organs working together to perform a common or similar function is referred to as an: Organ system
A group of organ systems functioning together is called an: Organism
How many organ systems do humans have? 11
Predisposing factors that lead to the development of disease include what five things? Age, Gender, Genetics, Lifestyle and Environment.
The study of disease causes is termed: Etiology
If the cause of a disease is unknown, it is termed to be: Idiopathic
The manifestation of a disease is known as the: Clinical presentation
What is a symptom? A symptom is what the patient tells or describes to you about what is going on with them, it is subjective.

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