OA L6:Nerves

Question Answer
What is CNS (Central Nervous System) consist of? Consists of brain and spinal cord
What does the PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) consist of? Spinal and cranial nerves
What neurons transmit information to the CNS? Sensory neurons
What neurons transmit information from the CNS? Motor neurons
From where do the spinal nerves exit? Exit from spinal cord
How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? 31 pairs
How many pairs of spinal nerves are on cervical? 7
How many pairs of spinal nerves on thoracic? 12
How many pairs of spinal nerves on lumbar? 7
How many pairs of spinal nerves on sacral? 5
How does the Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) operate? without conscious control
What type of fibers does the ANS have? Sensory and motor
What are the 2 antagonistic divisions of the ANS? Sympathetic NS and parasympathetic NS
Which system is the fight or flight? Sympathetic
Which is the neurotransmitter for the Sympathetic? Norepinephrine
What are the physiologic changes from the Sympathetic? Increased HR and BP, pupil dilation, decreased GI motility, decreased salivary secretions, and bronchodilation
What kind of response does the parasympathetic have? Reparative
Which is the neurotransmitter for the parasympathetic? Acetylcholine
What are the physiologic changes from the parasympathetic? Decreased HR and BP, pupil constriction, increased GI motility, increased salivary secretions, and bronchoconstriction
Sympathetic arises from what? Thoracic and lumbar regions of spinal cord
Parasympathetic arises from what? Sacral region and cranial nerves III, VII, IX, and X
What nerves attach directly to the brain? Cranial nerves
Through what do the cranial nerves leave the brain? Through foramen and fissures
What fibers can cranial nerves have? Sensory, motor or both
Olfactory nerve (I) is pure…. Sensory
What is the function of Olfactory nerve (I)? Smell
Where is Olfactory nerve (I) located? Anterior cranial fossa-fibers travel through the cribiform plate
What is the function of Optic nerve (II)? sight
Cranial nerve II (optic) is pure… Sensory
Where is the optic nerve (II) located? optic canal to posterior of globe (eye ball)
Cranial nerve III (Oculomotor) is pure…. Motor
What is the function of Oculomotor nerve (III)? Extra-ocular movement
Where is the oculomotor nerve (III) located? comes out the superior orbital fissure
Cranial nerve IV (Trochlear) is pure…. Motor
What is the function of Trochlear nerve (IV)? extra-ocular movement
Where is Trochlear nerve (IV) located? comes out of superior orbital fissure
What cranial nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves? Cranial nerve V (Trigeminal)
Is the Trigeminal nerve (V) sensory or motor? Both
What are the 3 main divisions of Trigeminal nerve( V)? Ophthalmic (V1), Maxillary (V2), and Mandibular (V3)
Cranial nerve V1 (Ophthalmic) has what function? Sensory to forehead region
Where is Ophthalmic nerve( V1) located? comes out of superior orbital fissure
What is the function of cranial nerve V2 (Maxillary)? Sensory
Where is Maxillary nerve (V2) located? Foramen Rotundum
What is the function of the zygomatic nerve? Sensory for lacrimal gland, skin of cheek and temporal area
Where is the zygomatic nerve located? enters pterygopalatine fossa from the inferior orbital fissure
What is the function of the infraorbital nerve? direct anterior continuation of V2, Sensory; lower eyelid, upper lip and side of nose
Where is the infraorbital nerve located? passes through infraorbital foramen
What nerves does the infraorbital nerve create? The MSA and ASA nerves
Are MSA and ASA motor or sensory? Sensory
ASA deals with what? maxillary anterior teeth, labial gingiva and periodotium
MSA deals with what? maxillary premolars and MB root of maxillary 1st molar, buccal gingiva and periodotium
MSA exists in how many people? about 27% of people, but assume everyone has it.
What is the function on Posterior Superior Alveolar nerve? Sensory of maxillary molars except MB root of the 1st molar
Where is the posterior superior alveolar nerve located? Arises after the pterygopalatine ganglion (Branch from V2)
What is the function of the pterygopalatine ganglion? Sensory
Where is the pterygopalatine ganglion located? first branch of V2
What are the branches of the pterygopalatine ganglion? Lesser palatine, greater palatine and nasopalatine nerves
What does the lesser palatine nerve deal with? area posterior to its foramen (soft palate and palatine tonsils)
What does the greater palatine nerve deal with? posterior palatal gingiva and teeth #1-5, 12-16
What is the function of the nasopalatine nerve Sensory to anterior palatal tissues (#6-11), may contribute to anterior teeth
Where is the nasopalatine nerve located? may anastomose with the greater palatine nerve
What is the function of cranial nerve V3 (Mandibular)? Sensory & Motor
Where is the Mandibular nerve (V3) located? passes through foramen ovale
Which branch of the 3 branches of cranial nerve V is the largest and most inferior? Cranial nerve Mandibular nerve (V3)
What are the motor branches of Mandibular nerve (V3)? Temporal , masseteric , medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid, and mylohyoid, tensor veli palatini, tensor tympani and mylohyoid nerves
Mandibular nerve (V3) motor controls what muscles? Muscles of mastication, mylohyoid and anterior gastric muscles
What are the sensory branches of Mandibular nerve (V3)? Buccal, auriculotemporal, lingual and inferior alveolar-mental and incisive nerves
What does the buccal nerve deal with? buccal mucosa and buccal gingiva associated with the mandibular molars (#17-19, 30-32)
What does the auriculotemporal nerve deal with? Ear and skin surrounding the ear
What does the lingual nerve deal with? Body of the tongue, floor of mouth, lingual mandibular gingiva
Where is the inferior alveolar nerve located? between ramus and sphenomandibular ligament, enters mandibular foramen
What does the inferior alveolar nerve supply to? Mandibular molars
What are the branches of the Inferior alveolar nerve? Mental and incisive nerves
What does the mental nerve deal with? facial soft tissues and buccal mucosa from foramen anteriorly
What does the incisive nerve deal with? Second premolar and anterior teeth with buccal gingiva and periodotium
Which of the 2 branches of the inferior alveolar nerve is the terminal branch? Incisive
Cranial nerve VI (Abducens) is pure…. Motor
What is the function of Abducens nerve (VI)? extra-ocular movement
Where is the Abducens nerve (VI) located? Superior orbital fissure
Which cranial nerve is involved with lazy eye? Abducens nerve (VI)
What is the function of cranial nerve VII (Facial)? Sensory and Motor
Where is Facial nerve (VII) located? Stylomastoid foramen
What is the sensory function of chorda tympani, branch of Facial (VII)? taste for the anterior 2/3 of tongue
What is the motor function of chorda tympani? submandibular and sublingual glands
What can happen if a dental injection gets Facial nerve ( VII)? Paralysis
What are the 5 motor branches for facial expressions? Temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, and cervical
Cranial nerve VIII (Acoustic) is pure….. Sensory
What is the function of Acoustic nerve (VIII)? Hearing and equilibrium
Where is Acoustic nerve (VIII) located? Internal acoustic meatus
What is Acoustic nerve (VIII) also known as? Vestibulocochlear
Is cranial nerve IX (Glossopharyngeal) sensory or motor? Both
What is the motor function of Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)? muscles of soft palate, parotid gland and middle ear
What is the sensory function of Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX)? posterior 1/3 of the tongue
Where is Glossopharyngeal nerve (IX) located? exits through the jugular foramen
Is cranial nerve X (Vagus) sensory or motor? Both
What is the function of Vagus nerve (X)? most smooth muscles of the body, cardiac muscle and glands
Where is Vagus nerve (X) located? exits the jugular foramen
What cranial nerve extends more than any other cranial nerve? Vagus nerve (X)
Cranial nerve XI (Spinal Accessory) is pure…. Motor
What is the function of Spinal Accessory nerve (XI)? trapezius and SCM muscles
Where is Spinal Accessory nerve (XI) located? Exits jugular foramen
Cranial nerve XII (Hypoglossal) is pure….. Motor
What is the function of Hypoglossal nerve (XII)? tongue muscles and contributes to trapezius, SCM, soft palate and pharynx
Where is the Hypoglossal nerve (XII) located? Hypoglossal canal
Cranial nerve I (Olfactory) provides… Sensory innervation for the nose
Cranial nerve III (Oculomotor) provides Motor innervation for they eye
Tooth #28 is innervated by…. Incisive nerve
Are sensory neurons afferent or efferent? Afferent
Are motor neurons afferent or efferent? Efferent
The parasympathetic nervous system controls the…. cranial/sacral
Which 3 nerves innervate extra-ocular movement and located at superior orbital fissure? Oculomotor (III), Trochlear (IV) and Abducens (VI)
What are the 3 main sensory branches for the ophthalmic branch (V1) Frontal, lacrimal and nasocillary
What are the seven major branches for the maxillary branch (V2)? Infraorbital, PSA, Zygomatic, ASA, MSA, Pterygopalatine Ganglion (Descending Palatine), and Nasopalatine
Which nerve is responsible for taste in the anterior 2/3s of the tongue? Facial (VII)
Which nerve is responsible for the gag reflex? IX (Glossopharyngeal)
Which nerve has the largest distribution? X (Vagus)
Which nerves have mixed innervations? Trigeminal (V), Facial (VII), Glossopharyngeal (IX) and Vagus (X)
Tooth 4 palatal tissue is innervated by what nerve? Greater Palatine nerve
Sensation to #30 can be supplemented by which motor nerve? Mylohyoid nerve

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