Imm. & Serology ch.5

Question Answer
what are cytokines? protein messengers that regulate the immune system by making other cells react to foreign Antigens.
what stimuli induce a cytokine reaction? foreign bacteria, lipids, flagella, or bacterial products
effects of cytokines in vivo regulates growthdifferentiation of cellsgene expression of many cells
effects of cytokines in vivo are achieved by______________. Autocrine stimulationparacrine stimulationEndocrine stimulation
Autocrine stimulation is a cytokine that affects the same cell that secreted it.
Paracrine stimulation is a cytokine that affects cells that are nearby.
Endocrine stimulation cytokines that can make systemic changes. (systemic- relating to a system)
cytokine storm massive overproduction and dysregulation of cytokines- leads to shock, multi-organ failure,even death
major cytokine families (6) Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)Interferons (IFN)ChemokinesTransforming Growth Factors (TGF)Colony Stimulating Factors (CSF)Interleukins (IL)
cytokines are pleiotropic. what does that mean? have many different effects and act on cells including those out of the immune system.
cytokines are redundant in function. what is this? several cytokines may have the same job/function.
the main function of the innate immune response is to______________________________________________. recruit effector cells to the area affected, cytokines are involved in triggering this response.
cytokines involved in innate imm. resposne (6) Tumor Necrosis Factor -alpha (TNF-a)Interleukin-1ChemokinesInterleukin-6Transforming growth factors-B (TGF-Beta)Interferons (IFN-a and IFN-B)
IL1Interleukin-1 1)endogenous pyrogen (found in the body, produces fever)2)produces chemokines and affects IL-6
IL1 3)attracts cells to injury and helps WBC do diapedesis(go from blood to tissue surrounding the injury)4)stimulates CSF in BM-this tells BM that more phagocytic cells need to be made.
IL1-alpha intracellular within mono. and macrophages.can be released after cell death.can help attract inflammatory cells to areas that need it
IL1-beta resp. for most systemic (system) activityex: fever, activation of phagocyes and production of acute phase proteins.cleaved intracellularly to an active form that is then secreted by monocytes
TNF-a causes vessel _________ and vessel_________ causes vessel dilution (enlargement) and vessel permeability(makes it easier for blood cells to move out of vessels into tissues)
TNF-a will be released especially when it contacts_________________________ GNR gram negative rods and lipopolyssacharides of GNR
TNF-a is secreted by monocytes, macrophages and T cells to activate MHC II molecules
MHC II molecules are activated so that__________ foreign antigen can be presented better and T cells will be activated.
too much TNF-a can produce septic shock with decreased blood pressure and it can start disseminated idiopathic coagulation DIC – can lead to uncontrolled bleeding.
RA rheumatoid arthritis or joint/synovial fluid can have __ and ___ in it. what will this cause? IL1 and TNFathis causes symptoms or bad effects of RA.
IL-6 is a____________ protein made by cells/WBCs.
IL-6 secretion is primarily triggered by____. IL-1
IL-6 is pleiotropic. why? b/c this cytokine affects inflammation,acute phase reactions,Ig synthesis and activation of B-cells and T-cells
Il-6 stimulates B cells to proliferate and differentiate into_______. plasma cells
IL-6 induces CD4+ T cells (helper cells) to produce more______ cytokines
chemokines make WBCs move to the injury and this is chemotaxis
CD4 T helper cells have receptors for chemokines on their surface. what virus also uses these receptors? HIV uses receptors on the CD4 T helper cells to get inside the cell and infect them. depending on what chemokine receptors were inherited, a person may be resistant to HIV.
chemokine production in the inflammatory response is induced by__ and ___. TNF-a and IL-6
TGF-beta regulates cell growth, retards growth of tumor cells, and regulates inflammatory response (causes it to go down)
TGF-b inhibits the amount of _____ and also inhibits ____ OIL 12 and IFN-y
whats an important factor in oral tolerance to bacteria normally found in the mouth? production of TGF-b and T helper 2 cells.
Interferons first meant interfering with viruses
what cells make interferons? dendritic cells
Interferons (INF) activates______and ________ NK cells and the MHC class I molecules (these present foreign viral Ag pieces )
how do interferons work? they induce production of proteins and pathways that directly interfere with viral replication. This will help limit the infection/ contain the infection in 1 area.
cytokines and the adaptive immune response cytokines can be part of the adaptive immune response when secreted by T cells
types of T helper cells Th1, Th2 and Th3
IL-12 -made by dendritic cells when tissue is damaged-made by B cells and macrophages- IL 12 activates Th1 and NK cells
th1 cytokines INF- y and IL-2
INF-y activates CD4, CD8 and NK cells helps fight bacteriastimulates foreign AG presentation by MCH I and II activates macrophagesIL-12 and 18 stimulate INF-y production
IL-2 is known as ____________ because________ known as T cell growth factor because it stimulates T and B cells and NK cells.also stimulates Th1 and Th2
Th1 and Th2 stimulate production of IgG and IgE by the B cells
Th2 cytokines IL4 and IL 10
IL4 helps with __ production by B cells. antibody
Th 2 cells as part of the immune response help fight_________ allergies,autoimmune disease and parasites
IL10 has anitinflamatory and suppresive effects on____ Th1 cells
IL 10 also inhibits______ production by suppression IL 12 IFN-y
T regulatory cells are part of the CD4 T cells
T reg cells have__ and __ on them CD4 and CD25T reg cells make IL 10 and TGF-b (inhibitory cytokines) they stop/reduce a reaction
stem cells are activated by IL-3
stem cells once activated, make ____ so that more T and B cells are made, therefore more granulocytes are made GM CSF *will also start more PLTs and RBCs
(EPO)__________ made in the kidneys causes the BM to make more stem cells that will turn into RBcs EPO- erythropoietin
EPO is also___ a manufactured medicine and is given to patients to stop anemia.more RBCs= better delivery of O2 to tissues
Anticytokine medicine can be given to suppress_____ levels of natural cytokines.also given to stop RA and Crohn's disease symptoms and tissue destruction

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