Human Sex Test 2

Question Answer
evidence pedophilia is genetic (7) more likely to be left handed, lower IQ, differences in brain regions, more likely to fail grades/been in special education, shorter by 2.5 compared to sex offenders against adults, higher in identical twins than nonidentical, differences arrive early
abused/abuser hypothesis. is it true? pedophilia may be related to being sexually abused as a child. not true because there is no difference in likelihood of being abused in pedophilic CM, non-pedophilic CM, sexual offenders against adults, non sexual offenders
aversive conditioning show nude, get shocked/smell ammonia
masturbatory reconditioning masturbate til near orgasm with fantasy (USC), then shift to adult fantasy (CS). show pics of children (UCS), followed by pics of girls a little older (CS), until older girl gets a response. progressively increases with age
covert sensitization imagine sex with child, then imagine discovery by family/co-workers
chemical castration use of antiandrogens to block effects of testosterone. reduces sex drive, doesn't change attraction, little evidence it reduces offending
do pedophilic treatments work? no, show temporary reduction at best but no long-lasting change. treatment to reduce sexual interest in children doesn't actually reduce offending against children
effective strategies (2) social support/intimate relationships, reduction of stigma
social support/intimate relationships pedophiles most likely to offend when lonely, loneliness is associated with increased likelihood of abusing children, reduced intelligent thought, reduced ability to self-regulate
reduction of stigma stigma causes shame and anxiety which impedes mental health and forming close relationships
3 limitations of current research into PD studies of prevention of abuse relies solely on offenders, little is known about how to prevent first offenses, problems with studying non-offending/pre-offending PDs
mandated reporting professionals are required to report observed/suspected abuse of vulnerable people, especially kids. risk of civil litigation/action by professional licensure boards
Mesopotamians view of masturbation masturbation is a means to achieve sexual power
Ancient Greeks view of masturbation masturbation is healthy/normal & a means to reduce dangerous/aggressive sexual tension
current consensus among scientists about cause of negative effects of masturbation negative effects due to stigma (shame about one's own masturbation, misunderstanding of what a partner's masturbation means for relationship)
health benefits of masturbation (5) develop orgasmic capacity, develop ejaculatory control, develop comfort with one's body/sexual responses, shift in focus from "must find sex partner" to exploration of pleasure immediately at hand, develop sense of ownership over one's self
Jocelyn Elders US surgeon general, fired by Bill Clinton for encouraging masturbation and saying if it is taught to young people it would reduce riskier sex
male fantasies being active, explicit visual imagery (zoomed in on body parts/sex acts), partners (more than one, switching partners, more likely to be stranger)
female fantasies being passive, emotional/romantic themes (storyline, plot, context, affection, love), partners (more likely to just be 1 person, often familiar)
best explanation for rape fantasies heightened arousal due to activation of sympathetic nervous system – fight or flight response heightens blood pressure/heart rate
women who have rape fantasies tend to be higher in erotophilia, lower in sex guilt, higher in self esteem, more sex partners, more varied sexual experiences, more fantasies in general including group sex & strangers
people who fantasize regularly are less likely to have desire/arousal/orgasmic disorders, have higher sex drives/more sex/more sexually satisfied
does fantasizing hurt a relationship? few/no fantasies is defining criteria for desire/arousal disorders in DSM, therapists prescribe fantasy as treatment for low desire/anorgasmia
people who feel guilty about sexual fantasies are more likely to have negative relationship outcomes due to fantasizing
Steele's study of self-diagnosed "porn addicts" self diagnosis of "sex/porn addict" associated with conservative values & religiosity, sex/porn addicts are not supported by this study
AASECT's position on porn & sex addiction linking problems related to sexual urges, thoughts, or behaviors to a porn/sexual addiction process cannot be advanced by AASECT as a standard of practice for sexuality education delivery, counseling or therapy
what did Gautreau find was a crucial variable to take into account when considering the link between greater porn use and sexual dissatisfaction ability to communicate about porn
Kendrick's flaw in his study only showed nude centerfolds to men, not women
Balzarini findings no negative effect of porn, although porn increased desire in one study
Kohut's findings about porn causing negative views toward women porn users more egalitarian (women in positions of power, women working outside of the home)
which variables actually predict negative attitudes toward women? not predicted by porn use, but being less educated and right wing attitudes
relationship between access to porn and sex crimes as porn becomes more available, prevalence of rape/assault/murder decreases
Richard Green's explanations of relationship between access to porn and sex crimes porn provides a "release valve" for sexual impulses, sex offenders might have offended sooner without porn
what age group is increasing STI rates? 15-24 year olds
most common STI HPV
prevalence of HPV 42% of adults
transmission of HPV PIV, anal, oral, vulva-vulva, even with no ejaculation
symptoms of HPV asymptomatic, not life threatening, warts on genitalia/anus/throat, may develop into cervical/anal/throat cancer, strains that cause warts do not cause cancer
treatments of HPV immune system clears virus in 2 years in 90% of cases, wart removal (creams, liquid nitrogen, surgical), people who have receptive anal with men should have annual anal pap smears
HPV-1 oral, can transmit to genitals
prevalence of HPV-1 65% of adults
HPV-2 genital, rarely passed to mouth/face
prevalence of HPV-2 20% of adults
what percent of herpes carriers are unaware they carry the virus? 90%
transmission of herpes PIV, anal, oral, even with no ejaculation. hand sex is safe
symptoms of herpes blisters (5-7 day duration) may be preceded by tingling, repeat outbreaks common & decrease over time, sores possible entry point for HIV, possibly asymptomatic, still contagious
treatment of herpes not curable but controllable, antiviral therapy reduces transmission by 50%, condoms by 30%, avoid sex during outbreak to limit but not eliminate transmission
prevalence of chlamydia in women 42%
prevalence of chlamydia in men 2.7%
transmission of chlamydia PIV, PIA, PIM even with no ejaculation
symptoms of chlamydia often non, discharge/pain from vagina/penis/anus, burn when peeing, often comorbid with gonorrhea
treatment of chlamydia easy with antibiotics, if left untreated – women risk pelvic inflammatory disease, women and men both risk infertility
prevalence of new HIV cases among 13-24 26%
what percent of HIV carriers are unaware they carry the virus? 18%
transmission of HIV PIV, PIA, sex with contact of blood/semen/pre-cum/vaginal/rectal fluids/breast milk with mucous membrane/damaged tissue, unprotected receptive anal sex highest risk, receptive vaginal sex also high
treatment of HIV not curable, current antiretroviral medicines (life expectancy only 2 years shorter), can reduce viral load to being totally non-infectious

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