Government Study Guide

Term Definition
These courts derive their power from the Constitutions and federal laws.. Federal Courts
People engaged in lawsuits are called.. Litigants
A formal accusation handed down by the grand jury is.. Indictment
These are the workhorses of the federal judiciary system.. District Courts
This is the court of the last resort in all questions of federal law.. Supreme Court
Explanation for the Supreme Court's decision is called.. An opinion
A state may not take a person's life, liberty, or property without.. Due process
If you are registered to vote or have a driver's license, you may be called for.. Jury Duty
Without this freedom there would be no political parties and no interest groups ton influence the action of government.. Freedom of Assembly
If you advocate revolution, you will be punished for.. Sedition
Labor unions have the right to.. Picket
Who are the keepers of this country's rights.. Citizens
The Constitution of the United States guarantees certain basic rights in the.. Bill of Rights
Newspaper reporters may be protected by.. Shield Laws
The Constitution assigns the power to control immigration to.. Congress
The ultimate source of political power in the United States is.. The people
Under what rule a person cannot be tried twice for the same crime.. Double Jeapordy
Before becoming naturalized citizens, immigrants are.. Resident aliens
People who flee to another country to escape persecution or danger are called.. Refugees
The process that grants immigrants the rights and privileges of citizenship is called.. Naturalization
The separation of one group of people from the larger group is called.. Segregation
What is the chief way the federal government raises revenue.. Individual Income Taxes
What is a 12-month accounting period called.. Fiscal year
Who has the power to raise revenue and pass appropriations? Congress
What is the biggest entitlement program.. Social Security
What do you call the guiding strategies and goals that direct U.S relations with other countries? Foreign Policy
Who does the Constitution give the power to declare war to.. Congress
What term means protecting United States borders and territories against invasion? National Security
What political philosophy means to be involved in world affairs? Neoconservative
How many years can a president serve in office.. 8 years
What system is often called a winner-take-all system.. Electoral College
What term means 2 houses of congress.. Bicameral
What are the qualifications for election to the Senate.. 1)Need to be a U.S citizen for 9 years2) Must be at least 30 years of age3) Must live in state that he/she is applying to
A trial court has ________ jurisdictions Original
Poland, Mexico, and South Africa are examples of what type of government system.. Emerging Democracy
What was he catalyst for Poland's transition to democracy.. Labor unrest
What ancient Greek scholar was one of the first students of government.. Aristotle
What are features of all states in today's world.. Borders and Government
What system of government gives all key powers to the national government? Unitary System
What was the colonial plan for self-rule, signed in 1620 by the Pilgrims, called.. Mayflower Compact
Why is the Magna Carta important.. It greatly influenced the Constitution
What man was known as the father of the Constitution.. James Madison
Thurgood Marshall Was an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court (served from October 1967 – October 1991)
Sandra Day O'Conner Served as an Associate Justice from her appointment in 1981 by Ronald Reagan until her retirement from the Court in 2006
Federal Courts Courts of the federal government
Grand jury Legal body that is empowered to conduct official proceedings to investigate potential criminal conduct and to determine whether criminal charges should be brought
Petit jury Jury of 12 persons empaneled to determine the facts of a case and decide the issue pursuant to the direction of the court on points of law
Jurisdiction of the Court Practical authority granted to a formally constituted legal body or to a political leader to deal with and make pronouncements on legal matters and, by implication, to administer justice within a defined area of responsibility
Law clerks (judicial clerk) Person who provides assistance to a judge or a licensed attorney in researching issues before the court and in writing opinions.
Coalition government Cabinet of a parliamentary government in which several political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that coalition
Platform Declaration of the principles on which a group of persons stands
One-Party System System of government with only one party, based on the constitution
Single-member districts (Single-winner voting) Electoral district that returns one officeholder to a body with multiple members such as a legislature.
Patronage Support, encouragement, privilege, or financial aid that an organization or individual bestows to another
Plurality The largest number of votes to be received by any candidate
Petition Request to do something
Third party Party other than one of the two dominant ones in a two-party political system
Precinct Captain Elected official in the American political party system. The office establishes a direct link between a political party and the voters in a local election district
Elastic clause Grants Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers
Appeal to Congress Timely resort by an unsuccessful party in a lawsuit or administrative proceeding to an appropriate superior court empowered to review a final decision on the ground that it was based upon an erroneous application of law
Bankruptcy Legal status of a person or other entity that cannot repay the debts it owes to creditors
Article 1 of the Constitution Describes the powers of Congress, and the legislative branch of the federal government
Article 2 of the Constitution Creates the executive branch of the government, consisting of the President, the Vice President, and other executive officers chosen by the President, including the Cabinet
Bill of Rights First 10 amendments
First Amendment Freedom of religion, speech, and press
Impeachment Formal process of removal from office
Ratification Principal's approval of an act of its agent where the agent lacked authority to legally bind the principal
United States v. E.C Knight & Co. Was the first case heard by the Supreme Court concerning the Sherman Antitrust Act, was argued on October 24, 1894 and the decision was issued on January 21, 1895
Marbury v. Madison Formed judicial review in the United States under Article III of the Constitution. The landmark decision helped define the boundary between the constitutionally separate executive and judicial branches of the American form of government
Dred Scott v. Sandford Decision whether or not African Americans could be American Citizens

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