Geo 104 Exam 3 Pt 2

Question Answer
Convergent zone of continental and oceanic processes Dynamic Coastal Environment
What percent of the world lives in coastal zones? What percent of the US? World – 50%US – 75%
Very large water/wind storms, can have diameters up to 600 km Tropical Cyclones
What are 5 coastal hazards? Tropical Cyclones, Floods, Coastal erosion, Tsunamis, and Rip currents
Formed by wind, magnitude is controlled by speeds and duration of thw ind Waves
Area or distance blown by winds Fetch of the Wind
What is the difference between waves and tsunamis? Waves are caused by wind, tsunamis are caused earthquakes/seafloor movement
The wave groups generated by storms far out at sea Swell
Proportional to the square of the wave height Wave energy
If the wave height is 5, what is the wave energy? 25
Waves are unstable when the wave height is greater than ?% of the wave length 10%
Decrease in wave length and velocity, but increase in wave height Wave Translation
Th bending of waves towards the protruding areas and the divergence of waves at the beach Wave Refraction
What is the longterm effect of wave refraction? Straightens the irregular shoreline
Part of the beach where most people hang out Berm
Horizontal movement of a large volume of seawater Current
What are currents caused by? Oblique waves, differences in water temp and salinity, and global currents/local currents
Swash pushing sediment onshore at an oblique angle Littoral Currents
Series of large waves surging to the shore then the rapid backflow of piled up water in narrow zones Rip Currents
Up to ? people die from rip currents each year, and ? are rescued 200 die, 20,000 rescued
Stream of water flowing parallel to the shore in the surf zone. Produced by incoming waves striking the coast at an angle Long Shore Current
Really strong cyclone, call this because its the way the wind blows Nor-Easter
Technology that measures several thousand elevation measurements per second, takes a lot of pictures, can detect changes in coastal zones LiDAR
What is hard stabilization? What are the pros and cons? Seawalls, groins, jetties. Pros – improve navigation and retard erosion. Cons – interferes with longshore currents, causes unintended erosion and deposition
What is soft stabilization, and what is a con? Beach nourishment. Very expensive and not always successful
in the last 100 years, coastal erosion along Texas accelerated by ?% 30-40%
Impact from outer space usually come in the form of ? Asteroids, meteoroids, and comets
Asteroids and meteoroids come from ? The asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter
Comets come from? The Kuiper Belt or Oort Cloud
Composed of rocky or metallic material, range from 10m to 1000km Asteroids
Small fragmented space particles made from the disintegration of asteroids. Range from dust size to a few meters Meteoroids
Meteoroids that are burning due to frictional heat from their entrance to Earth's atmosphere Meteor
Most shooting stars are ? Meteors
Rocky core surrounded by ice and covered by carbon-rich dust. Range from a few meters to a few hundred kilometers Comets
? intersect earth's orbit sometimes Comets
The formation of the Earth is contributed to ? MACs
When a meteoroid enters earth and disintegrates in the air. Causes direct impacts on collision with earth Aerial Bursts
Where do aerial bursts usually explode? Troposphere
Most famous crater in the US. In Arizona, formed by a small asteroid Barringer Crater
How big was the asteroid that formed the Barringer Crater 25-100 m
Craters involved with extremely high temp, velocity and pressure Impact craters
Comet that orbited Jupiter. Energy released from it was greater than all of the nuclear weapons on earth Shoemaker-Levy 9 (String of Pearls)
Forming of high pressure modified minerals such as quartz or materials and impacting objects Shocking Metamorphism
Massive and sudden loss of plant and animals relative to the number of new species being added Mass Extinction
What are the hypotheses behind mass extinction? Rapid climate change, plate tectonics, volcanic events, extraterrestrial objects
What is the most famous mass extinction and where did it happen? Asteroid that destroyed the dinosaurs, happened around the KT Boundary
What is the real name of the KT Boundary? What does it contain? Cretaceous and Tertiary Boundary, contains iridium
Small events happen about every ? years 1,000 years
Large events happen about every ? years 40-100 million years

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