Forensic chap 2 (11)

Question Answer
Chain of custody The documented and unbroken transfer of evidence
Circumstantial evidence Indirect evidence used to imply a fact but not prove it directly
Class evidence Material that connects an individual or thing to a certain group
Crime scene investigation A multidisciplinary approach in which scientific and legal professionals work together to solve a crime
Crime scene reconstruction A hypothesis of the sequence of events from before the crime was committed to its commission
Direct evidence Evidence that if true proves an alleged fact such as an eyewitness account of a crime
First responder The first police officer to arrive at a crime scene
Individual evidence A kind of evidence that identifies a particular person or thing
Paper bindle A folded paper used to hold trace evidence
Primary crime scene The location where the crime took place
Trace evidence Small but measurable amounts of physical or biological material found at a crime scene
Secondary crime scene A location other than the primary crime scene, but that is in some way related to the crime where evidence is found
Locard’s exchange principle implies that Fibers can be transferred from one person to another, cat hair can be transferred to your pants, soil samples can be carried from the yard into your home
Transfer evidence can include Hair that was transferred to a hairbrush, the blood of a victim found on a suspect, a footprint
The reason it is important to separate the witnesses at the crime scene is to Prevent contamination of the evidence
Correct collection of evidence requires Documenting the location where evidence was found, correct packaging of evidence, maintaining proper chain of custody
A crime scene sketch should include all of the following A scale of distance, date and location of the crime scene, a north heading on the diagram
Distinguish between circumstantial evidence and direct evidence Circumstantial evidence is indirect evidence used to imply a fact but not prove it directly. Direct evidence is evidence that if true proves an alleged fact.
What are examples of circumstantial evidence and direct evidence If you say “I saw a guy steal a candy bar”, it’s direct evidence. If you say “a guy walked nervously and quickly out of a store” it’s circumstantial evidence
Blood type is considered class evidence. Although it may not specifically indentify the subject, explain how it could still be useful in helping investigate a crime? Their are blood types A, B, AB, and O. If we identify the blood type at a crime scene, we have eliminated 75% of potential suspects
The recorder at the crime scene needs to work with all of the police personnel at the crime scene. What type of information would the recorder need to obtain from the first responding officer? First responding officer: scene is safe and secure. Individuals are safe. Preservation of evidence. Keeps a security log of all individuals at the crime scene.
The recorder at the crime scene needs to work with all of the police personnel at the crime scene. What type of information would the recorder need to obtain from the photographer? Pictures of the crime scene, (overall area and close up photos). Pictures should be taken with and without a measuring ruler
The recorder at the crime scene needs to work with all of the police personnel at the crime scene. What type of information would the recorder need to obtain from the sketch artist? An accurate rough sketch of the crime scene noting the position of the body, and other evidence. North should be labeled on the sketch and a distance scale should be provided. All objects around the crime scene should be labeled.
The recorder at the crime scene needs to work with all of the police personnel at the crime scene. What type of information would the recorder need to obtain from the evidence collection team? Evidence log, chain of custody document, evidence itself, case number, item inventory #, description of evidence, name of suspect, name of victim, date and time of recovery of evidence, signature of witnesses at the crime scene during evidence collection

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