Digestive system AP2

Question Answer
Oral cavity Mouth
Types of digestion occurring in the oral cavity Chemical & mechanical
List the two main functions of the digestive system:
How does the alimentary canal differ from the food tube? It doesn't
How does the alimentary canal differ from the accessory organs?
Give the beginning and end of the alimentary canal: Mouth & anus
Lateral walls of the mouth Cheeks
Separates the oral and nasal cavities Palate
Anterior parts of the cheeks Lips
Floor of the oral cavity Tongue
Function of the lingual frenulum Attaches tongue to floor of mouth
The secretion of the chief cells of the stomach Digestive enzymes
The secretion of the parietal cells Hydrochloric acid (HCl)
How does the anterior and posterior palate differ? Anterior – hard because it is bone Posterior – soft because it is cartilage
What is the uvula an extension of?
What is the uvulas function?
Which class of foods begin their digestive in the mouth? Carbohydrates
Which class of foods begin their digestion in the stomach? Proteins
Projections on the upper surface of the tongue: Papillae
What sensory structures are located within the projections of the papillae? Taste buds
A lingual frenulum attached too far anteriorly will result in what condition? Tongue tide
The sphincter at the superior end of the stomach: Cardiac
The sphincter at the inferior end of the stomach: Pyloric
Passageway for larynx and esophagus Pharynx
Type of digestion in the pharynx Mechanical
Type of digestion in the stomach Chemical & mechanical
Type of digestion in the esophagus Mechanical
Wavelike contractions moving food through the alimentary canal: Peristalsis
Type of digestion performed by peristalsis: Mechanical
Foods of the mucous membrane in the walls of the stomach:
Function:
Openings of gastric glands in the mucosa of the stomach: Gastric pits
The small region of the stomach receiving food from the esophagus: Cardiac
Largest part of the stomach Body
Lower part of the stomach near the junction of the duodenum: Pyloris
The part of the stomach superior to the cardiac section and serving as a temporary storage area: Fundus
Peritoneum providing support and allowing movement Mesentery
Give the dimensions of the small intestine: 21 feet long and 1 inch in diameter
Give the dimensions of the large intestine: 5 feet long and 2.5 inches in diameter
How is the large intestine named:
Give the beginning and end of the small intestine: Beginning – pyloric sphincter End – ileocecal sphincter
The section of the small intestine which joins the large intestine: Ileum
What is the name of the ileum junction? Ileocecal sphincter
The blind pouch at the point of junction: Cecum
The worm-like extension of the blind pouch: Appendix
What is the function served by the villi in the mucosal lining of the small intestine?
Are villi present in the large intestine No
Middle section of the small intestine Jejunum
Acidic material leaving the stomach and entering the small intestine Chyme
The short terminal part of the large intestine anterior to the sacrum: Rectum
Name the four regions of the colon: Ascending, transverse , descending , sigmoid
Which part of the colon is found on the left side? Descending
Which colon is found on the right side? Ascending
Which part extends from the left side to the middle? Sigmoid
What kind of digestion occurs in the large intestine Mechanical
Exterior opening of the anal canal: Anus
How do the internal and external anal sphincters differ? Internal – involuntarily External – voluntarily
First segment of the large intestine below the ileocecal sphincter? Cecum
Scientific term for chewing Mastication
The first teeth Deciduous (20)
Number and kinda of deciduous teeth 8 incisors; 4 cuspids ; 8 molars (20)
Permanent teeth 32
Kinds of permanent teeth 8 incisors ; 4 cuspids ; 12 molars ; 8 bicuspids (32)
How does the total number of deciduous and permanent teeth differ Deciduous – 20 teethPermanent – 32 teeth
List functions for saliva – allows you a sense of taste – binding food particles together- dissolving certain foods- cleansing and lubricating the mouth -starts carbohydrate digestion
Largest of the salivary glands
Location of …
Salivary glands under the tongue Sublingual
Salivary glands under the mandible Submandibular
Which pair of salivary glands are the smallest? Sublingual
Discuss how the salivary secretions differ among these glands:
Largest glans of the body: Liver
Number of lobes in the liver 4
Location of the liver Upper right quadrant of abdomen
The microscopic functional units composite each liver lobe Lobules
The structures analogous to the capillaries Sinusoids
What structures radiate out from the central vein? Cords of liver cells
Vessel which carries oxygenated blood to the liver cells Hepatic artery
Vessel which carries deoxygenated, nutrient-rich blood from the digestive tract? Hepatic portal vein
Vessel formed by merging of many central veins Hepatic vein
What vessel carries the blood from the liver to the heart? Inferior vena cava
The joining of the hepatic duct and cystic duct forms what? Common bike duct
Duct formed by many bile ducts Hepatic duct
Duct which carries bike from the liver Hepatic duct
The short duct extending from the gall bladder Cystic duct
Duct formed by the union of hepatic duct and cystic duct: Common bile duct
Duct which empties bile into the duodenum
Organ for stirring bile temporary Gall bladder
Compare chemical and mechanical digestion
Why is the pancreas considered a dual organ? Secretes pancreatic juiceSecretes hormones
The endocrine part of the pancreas consisting of secretory cells: Islets of Langerhans
Structure through which pancreatic juice is carried to the duodenum: Pancreatic duct
Splitting a compound into simpler substances with water: Hydrolysis
Enzyme in saliva Amylase
Class of food affected by amylase Result Carbohydrates – broken into disaccharide maltose
The four enzymes found in the intestinal juice: the class of foods acted upon : end products Peptidases – peptides > amino acidsSucrase – sucrose > glucose & fructose Lactase – lactose > glucose & galactose Maltase – maltose > glucose
Acid found in gastric juice Hydrochloric
Enzyme found in gastric juice : food acted on : and result: Pepsin – proteins – partially digested proteins
What substance emulsifies fats? Bile
What is emulsification? Mechanical breakdown of fats into globules
How do large fatty acids differ from the very small fatty acids?
All materials absorbed into the blood are carried from the small intestine to the liver by what structure? Hepatic portal vein
Absorbed into the capillaries of the villi by active transport and some diffusion: Carbohydrates
Classification of foods actively absorbed in the capillaries of the villi: Proteins
Sum total of all the chemical reactions occurring in the body: Metabolism
Compare the two phases of metabolism Catabolism – break down of food , produce energyAnabolism – combining of simple substances , require energy
Splitting glycogen into glucose Glycogenolysis
Sugar-regulating hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic ducts: Insulin
First process of carbohydrate catabolism Glycolysis
The formation of glucose from protein or fat compounds: Gluconeogenesis
Sugar-regulating hormone produced by alpha cells of the pancreatic islets: Glucagon
What does the hormone glucagon do to the blood glucose level? Increases it
The amount of energy released in the body given time by catabolism: Metabolic rate
Explain the meaning of basal metabolic rate: Rate of expenditure under conditions of rest, post absorptive state, and a comfortably warm environment
Glycogen formation by the joining of glucose molecules: Glycogenesis
Explain the influence of thyroid hormone on BMR: The greater the the thyroid hormone, the greater the BMR
Explain the influence of drugs, caffeine on BMR: Increases BMR
Explain the influence of fever on BMR: Increases BMR
Explain the influence of hypothermia on BMR: Decreases BMR
Explain the influence of size on BMR Amount of body surface, the larger the individual, the greater the BMR
Explain the influence of age on BMR: Low at birth, increases from 3-6 years and then decreases
Explain the influence of sex on BMR: Men have a 5-7% higher BMR than women
Explain the influence of pregnancy, laceration, and emotions on BMR Increases BMR
Amount of energy used by the body in a given time: Total metabolic rate
What units are used for expressing this value? KC/ day or KC/hour
If the body maintains an energy balance, what happens to body weight? Remains constant
How does the thermic effect of proteins compare with the thermic effect of fats and carbohydrates?
Simplest form of fat: Fatty acids and glycerol
Simplest form of a protein Amino acids
Simplest form of a carbohydrate: Monosaccharide
Most complex form of a carbohydrate Polysaccharide
Enzyme acting on fats Lipase
How are fatty acids and glycerol metabolized?
Why are proteins broken down extracellularly? They cannot pass through the plasma membrane
What two enzymes act on proteins?
Explain the deamination of proteins:
What is the importance of the Karen's cycle?
Process by which the energy stored in food inside the cells is released?
How does aerobic respiration differ from anaerobic respiration?
The process of breaking down one glucose molecule into two, 3- carbon pyruvic acid molecules:
Why must glycolysis precede Krebs cycle?
What happens to the pyruvic acid inside the mitochondrion?
-prepare food for absorption and use by the cells- to eliminate injested food that becomes waste
Food or waste pass through the alimentary canal and they don't pass through the accessory organs
Soft palate
Folds of the mucous membrane in the walls of the stomach: Rugae
Allows a stretching of the mucosa
With a larger diameter than the small intestine
Increases absorptive surface area
Poratid gland
Location of poratid gland Anterior to each ear over the masseeter muscle
Poratids secrete amylase rich saliva. – submandibular secrete watery saliva with little mucus- sublingual secrete mainly mucus
Common bile duct
Thermic effect of proteins – 30%Thermic effect of carbohydrates -5%
Separately by Krebs cycle
Proteases and peptidases
Cellular respiration
Glycolysis

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