Chp. 5 vocab

Question Answer
cell cycle pattern of growth, DNA replication, and cell division that occurs in a eukaryotic cell
mitosis process by which a cell divides its nucleus and contents
cytokinesis process by which the cell cytoplasm divides
chromosome long, continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes and regulatory information
histone protein that organizes chromosomes and around which DNA wraps
chromatin loose combination of DNA and proteins that is present during interphase
chromatid one half of a duplicated chromosome
centromere region of condensed chromosome that looks pinched; where spindle fibers attach during meiosis and mitosis
telomere repeating nucleotide at the ends of DNA molecules that do not form genes and help prevent the loss of genes
prophase first phase of mitosis when chromatin condenses, the nuclear envelope breaks down, the nucleolus disappears, and the centrosomes and centrioles migrate to opposite sides of the cell
metaphase second phase of mitosis when spindle fibers align toe chromosomes along the cell equator
anaphase third phase of mitosis during which chromatids separate and are pulled to opposite sides of the cell
telophase last phase of mitosis when a complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell, the nuclear membranes start to form, the chromosomes begin to uncoil, anf the spindle fibers disassemble
growth factor broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
apoptosis programmed cell death
cancer common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
benign having no dangerous effect on health, especially referring to an abnormal growth of cells that are not cancerous
malignant cancerous tumor in which cells break away and spread to other parts of the body, causing harm to the organism's health
metastasize spread by transferring a disease-causing agent from the site of the disease to other parts of the body
carcinogen substance that produces or promotes the development of cancer
asexual reproduction process by which offspring are produced from a single parent; does not involve the joining of gametes
binary fission asexual reproduction in which a cell divides into two equal parts
tissue group of cells that work together to preform a similar function
organ group of different types of tissues that work together to preform a specific function or related functions
organ system two or more organs that work in a coordinated way to carry out similar functions
cell differentiation processes by which unspecialized cells develop into their mature form and function
stem cell cell that can divide for long periods of time while remaining undifferentiated

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