Child Psych Test 3

Question Answer
oppositional defiant disorder pattern of negativistic, hostile, defiant behavior
symptoms of ODD must last longer than 6 months
symptoms of ODD Loses temper, argues with adults, actively defies/refuses to comply with adults’ requests/rules, deliberately annoys people, touchy/easily annoyed, angry, resentful, spiteful/vindictive, impairs functioning, blames others for mistakes/misbehavior
conduct disorder persistent pattern of behavior that violates the rights of others & age-appropriate social norms, behavior causes impairment
for a conduct disorder diagnosis, there must be __ behaviors for at least ___ 3 or more, at least 12 months
onset for conduct disorder childhood (prior to age 10) or adolescent onset
early childhood conduct problems (3) noncompliance, oppositional, temper tantrums
middle childhood conduct problems (3) overt and covert, antisocial behavior, relational aggression
adolescent conduct problems (4) delinquency, substance use, high risk, sexual behavior
onset of oppositional defiant disorder early & middle childhood
onset of conduct disorder middle childhood & adolescence
covert-property destructive steals, fire setting, vandalism, lies
status offenses runs away, truancy, uses substances, swears
aggression cruel to animals, spiteful, cruel, assault, fights, bullies
oppositional temper tantrums, argues, annoys others, stubborn, angry, defies adults, touchy
antisocial personality disorder characterized by aggressive antisocial behaviors that begin by age 15 & continue into adulthood
when is antisocial personality disorder diagnosed? after age 18
psychopathy characteristic associated with APD
symptoms of psychopathy lack of empathy, deceitful, arrogant, manipulative interpersonal style, impulsive & irresponsible behavioral style
boys exhibit significantly _____ levels of aggression higher
girls more likely to engage in relational aggression
relational aggression purposefully excluding others, shunning someone when angry, telling lies about a person – spreading rumors, threatening the person with the relationship, can begin in preschool, victims can be rejected/anxious/depressed/lonely
in bullying, imbalance of ____ is key power
bullying emerges in ____ & is common by ____ preschool, elementary school
in 2011 study of students grades 6-10, what percent reported moderate/frequent bullying? 30%
which grades had more frequent bullying: 6-8 or 9-11 6-8
what type of bullying is increasing internet
which gender is more likely to be both victims & perpetrators males
which gender experiences direct bullying & which experiences indirect bullying? males – direct, females – indirect
indirect bullying rumors, manipulation of friends, social isolation
typical bully highly aggressive to peers & adults, positive attitude toward violence, impulsive, strong need to dominate others, has little empathy for others, if a boy – physically stronger
typical victim more anxious & insecure, cautious, sensitive, nonaggressive, low self-esteem, boys are physically weaker, often do not have one good friend in class
what percent of boys who bully in grades 6-9 were convicted of at least one crime by age 24? 60%
what percent of boys who bully in grades 6-9 were convicted of at least 3 crimes by age 24? 35-40%
why do kids bully? poverty, high-crime neighborhoods, lower class, minority groups, learned behavior (rewarded for it, modeled), parents offer more commands/questions/criticisms
boys bully __ times more than girls 3
illicit drugs marijuana, heroin, cocaine, x
licit drugs alcohol, nicotine, psychiatric meds, OTC meds (sleep aids, weight loss), steroids, inhalants (paint thinners, glue)
excessive use impaired control over use of the substance, social impairment (work, school, friends), risky use, pharmacological (tolerance, withdrawal)
excessive use of substances can lead to depression, anxiety
what percent of 8th graders have used illicit substances 21%
what percent of 10th graders have used illicit substances 37%
what percent of 12th graders have used illicit substances 48%
what is the most widely used illicit drug marijuana
daily use of marijuana has ____ in 8th, 10th and 12th grade increased
what percent of 8th graders reported being drunk in the last month? 5%
what percent of 10th graders reported being drunk in the last month? 15%
what percent of 12th graders reported being drunk in the last month? 27%
risk factors for substance abuse? expectancy for outcomes for drug use, insecure attachment, high family conflict, ineffective parenting, parent/family member who models abuse, perceived peer substance use, perceived peer approval associated with use, poor academics/low involvement
parent training parents trained to give direct, concise commands, allows child TIME to comply, reward compliance with attention, and apply negative consequences for noncompliance
what is the most successful intervention for conduct problems? parent training
parent-child interaction therapy parents practice skills while therapist observes & coaches them
8 steps of parent-child interaction therapy 1. be direct, 2. be positive (do this, instead of don't), 3. one command at a time, 4. specific, 5. age appropriate, 6. polite & respectful, 7. explain before/after compliance, 8. only use commands when necessary and/or appropriate
3 steps to cognitive problem solving training 1. address deficits & skills of young children (3-8), 2. use games & activities to model & practice, 3. therapist serves as role model & coach
community based models – teaching family model (3) teens live in group homes with 2 trained teaching parents, attend school & work, uses TOKEN economy to reward prosocial behaviors
medicine to decrease aggression & irritability mood stabilizers
is there approval for medicine to treat CD or ODD? no, no approval & research support limited on medicine for disruptive behavior
myths/misunderstandings about ADHD (4) not a real disorder, poor parenting causes ADHD, girls have lower rates & less severe ADHD, ADHD is over-diagnosed
predominantly inattentive ADHD-I
predominantly hyperactive-impulsive ADHD-HI
combined (predominantly inattentive & predominantly hyperactive-impulsive) ADHD-C
for an ADHD DSM classification, must have symptoms for at least ___ months before age at least 6 months, before age 12
for an ADHD DSM classification, it must impair 3 functions & seen in at least ___ settings 3 functions: social, academic, occupational functioning, seen in at least two settings
cannot focus consistently (sustained attention) (6) child may play videogames for hours, difficult tasks increase problems, has trouble managing simultaneous stimuli/switching from one task to another, may focus on unimportant information, easily distraction, central problem is control/self-regulation
hyperactivity & impulsivity always on the run, restless, can't sit still, accident-prone, disorganized, more apparent in structured situations, uninhibited, acts without thinking, interrupts others, cuts in line, engages in dangerous behaviors, rude, immature
motor skills clumsiness, delays in milestones, poor performance in sports, complex movements & sequencing most affected
what percent of ADHD students need tutoring 56%
what percent of ADHD students have to repeat a grade 30%
what percent of ADHD students receive special education placement 30-40%
what percent of ADHD students fail to graduate high school 10-35%
executive functions (4) goal-directed behavior, planning, organizing, self-regulating
self-regulating (6) working memory, verbal self-regulation, self-monitoring, inhibition of behavior, emotional regulation, motor control
adaptive behavior (4) immature (socially & emotionally), deficits in self-care, independence, ability to perform everyday skills
social problems are very common due to ________ behaviors (4) loud, disruptive, aggressive, impulsive
style of interaction with conduct disorders aggressive, negative, physical/verbal aggression toward others
ADHD-C may be ____ of impact of their social behavior on others unaware
people with conduct disorders may be _____ or ____ by peers disliked or rejected
teachers are ____ & _____ toward children with ADHD directive & controlling
parents of people with conduct disorders are (3) less rewarding, more negative, directive
sleep problems in people with conduct disorders (4) trouble falling asleep, night awakening, involuntary movements, may be related to medications or anxiety
accidents in people with conduct disorders (3) bone fractures, accidental poisonings, car/driving accidents
what percent of people with conduct disorders 15-40%
ADHD prevalence of school age children 3-7%
boys diagnosed at _____ ratio to girls 3.4:1
referral bias for boys v girls boys have greater aggressive & antisocial behavior
which gender is more likely to receive ADHD-I diagnosis? girls
SES and ADHD ADHD more prevalent in lower SES
infancy & preschool (4) difficult temperament, high activity level, less cooperative/manageable, poor emotional regulation
childhood (6) self-regulation & organization deficits, peer rejection, poor academic achievement, ODD, CD, internalizing symptoms
when are most ADHD cases diagnosed? during elementary school
barkley's model (3) inhibit prepotent responses (likely to be reinforced), interrupt prepotent responses (already underway & ineffective), protect from interference (distraction)
sensitivity to reward (3) high preference for immediate reward, decreased sensitivity to punishment, perform poorly in situations with low incentive (partial reinforcement)
temporal processing underestimate passage of time
delay aversion want immediate rewards
prenatal/birth complications & ADHD maternal smoking/alcohol use & birth complications linked to higher rates of ADHD
diet and ADHD diet doesn't play a strong role in ADHD
lead and ADHD influence of lead exposure on ADHD may be small, but should still be cautious
psychosocial influences (2) maternal depression, parental childhood ADHD
stimulant medication (3) Ritalin, Concerta, Adderall
stimulant medication helps in what percent of cases 75%
stimulant medication for ADHD (2) can reduce co-occurring behaviors (directly or indirectly), may have effect on academic achievement
stimulants don't work on what percent of children 10-20%
are stimulants easy/hard to be prescribed? too easily prescribed
side effects of stimulants sleep problems, reduced appetite, headaches, stomach aches, irritability, jitteriness, growth suppression, vocal motor tics, risk for later substance abuse
behavioral intervention use rewards/punishments to target specific behaviors
classroom management (3) contracting, daily report card, educational methods
educational methods (4) may need help with slow work style, organizational skills, on task time, transitions,reduce peer reinforcement of inappropriate behavior
which methods help to treat ADHD most effectively? medication & combined care treatments
intervention for ADHD must be _____ over time sustained
symptoms of RAD physical aggression, threatening to kill family members/others, planning to burn a building down, getting out of school by fighting with the principal, kicking holes in the walls, hiding bodily wastes in house, stealing, lying, false allegations of abuse
reactive attachment disorder disorder related to a child's failure to attach to primary caregiver, social neglect/deprivation, repeated changes of primary caregivers that don't allow stable attachments

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