Chapter 9

Question Answer
estate one of the three classes in French society before the revolution: First Estate (clergy, or church officials); Second Estate (nobles); and Third Estate (peasants and townspeople). Also, a large piece of land with a grand house
taille an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
consumer an annual direct tax, usually on land or property, that provided a regular source of income for the French monarchy
bourgeoisie the middle class, including merchants, industrialists, and professional people
exclusion barred from inclusion or participation in
sans-culottes without breeches”; members of the Paris Commune who considered themselves ordinary patriots wearing long trousers instead of the fine knee-length breeches of the nobles
domestic relating to or originating within one’s country
perceent a part of a whole divided into 100 parts
elector an individual qualified to vote in an election
coup detat a sudden overthrow of the government
consulate government established in France after the overthrow of the Directory in 1799
capable having or showing ability
liberal broad-minded; associated with ideals of the individual, especially economic freedom and greater participation in governmen
nationalism the unique cultural identity of a people based on common language, religion, and national symbols
conservatism a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring obedience to political authority and organized religion
principle of intervention the idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
liberalism a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties—the basic rights of all people—should be protected
civil involving the general public or civic affairs
constitution the basic principles and laws of a nation, state, or social group that determine the powers and duties of the government and guarantee certain rights to the people in i

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