Chapter 3 Vocabulary

Question Answer
Amerindian American Indian.
Astrolabe A compact instrument used to observe and calculate the position of celestial bodies to help navigate.
Caravel A small 15/16th Century ship that usually had three masts with lateen or both square and lateen sails
Cartesian Dualism Rene Descartes principle of the separation of the mind and matter than enables scientists to view matter as something separate from themselves that could be investigated by reason.
Cartographer The art of map making.
Columbian Exchange A widespread exchange of animals, plants, culture, humans, disease, technology and idea between the Americans and Afro-Eurasian hemispheres following Columbus' voyage to the Americas in 1492.
Conquistador A leader in the Spanish conquests of America, Mexico, and Peru in the 16th Century.
Creoles American born descendants of Europeans.
Deism Belief in God as the creator of the universe who, after setting it in motion, ceased to have nay direct involvement and allowed it to run according to its own natural laws.
Diaspora The movement of people away from an established or ancestral homeland.
Encomienda System System introduced by Spanish when they conquered South and Central America which placed Spaniards in charge of hundreds of natives and let them tax or use as free labor and in return they taught Christianity and maintained order.
Enlightened Absolutism Absolute monarchy where the ruler follows the principles of the Enlightenment by introducing reforms to improve society, freedom of speech and press, religious toleration and ruling in accordance to these laws.
Enlightenment An 18th Century intellectual movement, led by philosophers, that stressed the application of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of life.
Feminism The belief in the social, political and economic equality of the sexes, organized activity to advance women's rights.
Galleons A large sailing ship sued by the Spanish in the 15-1600's.
General Will Philosophy concept that refers to the interest of people as a whole.
Geocentric Theory Earth is at the center of the universe and the sun and other celestial objects revolve around the earth.
Great Circuit Trade route from Europe to Africa, Africa to Americas, Americas to Europe.
Hacienda A large estate in a Spanish speaking country.
Heliocentric Model Sun is at the center of the universe.
Indentured Servant Person who signs and is bound by indentures to work for another for a specific time especilly in return for payment of travel expenses and maintainence.
Joint Stock COmpany A company consisting of individuals organized to conduct business for profit and offering stock shares to be owned individually be members.
Laissez-Faire An economic position that opposes governmental regulatio of or interference in commerce beyond the minimum necessary for a free-enterprise system to operate.
Mercantilism Purpose of colonies is to benefit parent country with raw materials and markets for manufactured goods.
Mestizoz The children of Europeans (Originally Spaniards) and Native American Indians.
Middle Passage The forced voyage of Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to Americas.
Mit'a System Tribute system of the Inca government in the for of labor. Public service was required in community-driven projects such as the extensive road system.
Mulattoes Children of African and Europeans, particularly in Latin America.
Natural Rights Certain inalienable rights to which people are entitled, including life, liberty, property, freedom of speech and religion, and equality before the law.
Penisulares People born in Spain on the Iberian peninsula who lived in Latin America.
Peons Unskilled worker or farmer worker in Latin America.
Philosophers Intellectuals of the Enlightenment who believed in applying rationale criticism and analysis to all things, including religion and politics and focused on enjoying this world not the afterlife.
Physiocrat Member of a school of political economists founded in the 18th Century France that believed government policy should not interfere with the operation of natural economic laws.
Protestant/Puritan Work Ethic Concept that emphasizes hard work, frugality and diligence as a constant display of a person's salvation in Christianity, rather than religious attendance, confession, and ceremonial sacraments in the Catholic tradition.
Syncretism Combing of different, usually contradictory beliefs, often while melding practices of various schools of thought. Merger of theology and mythology traditions.
Rationalism System of thought based on the belief that human reason and experience are the chief sources of knowledge.
Tabula Rasa Mind before recieving impressions gained from experience.
Viceroy Governor of a province, colony, or country.
World Concept Machine Newton's conception of the universe as one huge, regulated, and uniform machine that operated according to natural laws in absolute time, space, and motion.

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