CHAPTER 13 ELECTRICITY

Question Answer
Movement of particles around an atom that creates pure energy. Electricity:
Any material that conducts electricity. Conductor:
Flow of electricity along a conductor. Electric current:
Also insulator; material that does not transmit electricity. Nonconductor:
Path of negative and positive electric currents moving from the generating source through the conductors and back to the generating source. Complete electric circuit:
Constant, even-flowing current that travels in one direction only and is produced by chemical means. Direct current (DC):
Apparatus that changes direct current to alternating current. Converter:
Rapid and interrupted current, flowing first in one direction and then in the opposite direction. Alternating current (AC):
Apparatus that changes AC to DC. Rectifier:
Also voltage; unit that measures the pressure or force that pushes electric current forward through a conductor. Volt (V):
Also amp; unit that measures the strength of an electric current. Ampere (A):
1/1,000 of an ampere Milliampere (mA):
Unit that measures the resistance of an electric current. Ohm (O):
Unit that measures how much electric energy is being used in one second. Watt (W):
1,000 watts. Kilowatt (K):
Prevents excessive current from passing through a circuit. Fuse
Switch that automatically interrupts or shuts off an electric circuit at the first indication of an overload Circuit breaker
Completes an electric circuit and carries the current safely away Grounding
Use of electrical currents to treat the skin. Electrotherapy
Currents used in electrical facial and scalp treatments. Modalities
Also probe; applicator for directing electric current from an electrotherapy device to the client’s skin Electrode
Negative or positive pole of an electric current. Polarity
Positive electrode, red, marked with P or a plus (+) sign. Anode
negative electrode, black, marked with N or minus (–) sign. Cathode
Constant and direct current. Galvanic current
Extremely low level of electricity, mirrors the body’s natural electrical impulses. Microcurrent:
Also violet ray; thermal or heat-producing current with a high rate of oscillation or vibration that is commonly used for scalp and facial treatments. Tesla high-frequency current:
Also electromagnetic spectrum of radiation; name for all forms of energy. Electromagnetic spectrum
Distance between successive peaks of electromagnetic waves. Wavelength
Distance between two wavelengths. Waveform
Part of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be seen. Visible spectrum of light:
Light at either end of the visible spectrum of light that is invisible to the naked eye. Invisible light:
Also cold light or actinic light; invisible light with a short wavelength. Ultraviolet light (UV light):
Light with longer wavelengths, deeper penetration, less energy, more heat than visible light. Infrared light
Substances that speed up chemical reactions. Catalysts
Also phototherapy; application of light rays to skin for treatment of wrinkles, capillaries, pigmentation, or hair removal. Light therapy
Acronym for light amplification stimulation emission of radiation; medical device that uses electromagnetic radiation for hair removal and skin treatments. Laser
Medical device used to reduce acne, increase skin circulation, and improve the collagen content in the skin. Light-emitting diode (LED):
Medical device that uses multiple colors and wavelengths of focused light to treat spider veins, hyperpigmentation, rosacea and redness, wrinkles, enlarged hair follicles and pores, and excessive hair. Intense pulse light

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