Chapter 10 Vocab. Nationalism Triumphs in Europe

Term Definition
Otto von Bismarck a leader from Prussia who succeeding in unifying German-speaking states under Prussian rule
chancellor the highest official of a monarch
Realpolitik realistic politics based on the needs of the state
annex to take control of, usually referring to land
kaiser emperor
Reich German word meaning empire or nation
Kulturkampf the “battle for civilization” in which Bismarck took several measures to make Catholics put loyalty to the state above allegiance to the Church
William II the kaiser of Germany beginning in 1888, who asked Bismarck to resign
social welfare programs to help certain groups of people in a society
Camillo Cavour a politician who worked to unify Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi a nationalist military leader who worked with Cavour to create an unified Italy
anarchist person who wants to abolish all government
emigration movement away from one’s homeland
Francis Joseph Hapsburg emperor of the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Ferenc Deak a moderate Hungarian leader who helped work out the compromise that created the Dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungary
Dual Monarchy Dual Monarchy an agreement that made Austria and Hungary different states with their own constitutions and parliaments, but with shared ministries of finance, defense, and foreign affairs
colossus – a giant
Alexander II – ruler of Russia who came to the throne in 1855; responsible for some reforms in Russia, but was eventually assassinated by radicals
Crimean War – a war that broke out when Russia invaded Ottoman lands along the Danube; ended in Russian defeat
emancipation – the act of freeing someone, usually from slavery or serfdom
zemstvo – an elected assembly in Russia that was responsible for road repair, schools, and agriculture at a local level
pogrom – a violent mob attack on Jewish people
refugees – people who flee their homeland to seek safety elsewhere
Duma – an elected national legislature in Russia
Peter Stolypin – prime minister appointed by Tsar Nicholas to restore order through arrests, pogroms, and execution; attempted reforms but was ultimately assassinated

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