BIOL250 (Unit 2) Integument, bones, joints, muscles

Question Answer
Cutaneous Membrane: Consists of the epidermis and dermis of the integument
Accessory Structures: Consist of hair follicles, sweat glands, and other accessories found in the integument
Subcutaneous Layer: Innermost layer of the integument, which serves as a barrier between the integument and deep tissues
Reticular Layer: Innermost layer of the Dermis, which contains a layer of Dense Irregular Connective Tissue
Papillary Layer: Outermost layer of the Dermis, which contains Areolar Tissue
Subpapillary Plexus: Network of small arteries, veins, and nerve fibers that service the tissues of the integument and are found under the Papillary Layer of the Dermis
Functions of the Integumentary System: 1. Protect underlying tissues and organs2. Excrete wastes3. Maintain homeostasis4. Store lipids5. Detect sensations6. Synthesizes vitamin D
The Integumentary System protects underlying tissues and organs from: Impact, abrasion, fluid loss, and chemical attack
The Integumentary System protects underlying tissues and organs from UV Rays by: Producing Melanin
The Integumentary System protects underlying tissues and organs from abrasion and water by: Producing Keratin
The Integumentary System excretes salts, organic wastes, and water by: Integumentary glands
The Integumentary System maintains homeostasis by: Insulation and Evaporation
The Integumentary System stores lipids in: Adiposites
The Integumentary System detects: Touch, pressure, pain, and temperature
The Epidermis is made up of: Stratified Squamous Epithelial Tissue
The two kinds of epidermis: 1. Thick skin, found on the palms and soles2. Thin skin, which covers most of the body
Epidermal Ridge Pattern: Fingerprints, which are caused by DNA and are unique in all people
5 Layers of the Epidermis: 1. Stratum Corneum2. Stratum Lucidum3. Stratum Granulosum4. Stratum Spinosum5. Stratum Basale
Stratum Corneum: The first layer of the Epidermis, which contains keratin and dead cells connected by desmosomes
Stratum Lucidum: The second layer of the Epidermis, which consists of densely-packed cells that are filled with the proteins keratin and keratohyalin
Stratum Granusolsum: The third layer of the Epidermis, which contains 3-5 layers of keratinocytes
Stratum Spinosum: The fourth layer of the Epidermis, which contains 8-10 layer of keratinocytes bound together by desmosomes and containing Dendritic/Langerhans Cells
Stratum Basale: The fifth and innermost layer of the Epidermis, which is attached to the basement membrane by hemidesmosomes and contain merkel cells
Insensible Perspiration: Insensible perspiration in the stratum corneum of the Epidermis
2 defenses of Langerhans/Dendritic Cells found in the Stratum Spinosum of the Epidermis: 1. Against microorganisms that penetrate the stratum corneum, lucidum, and granulosum of the epidermis2. Against superficial skin cancers
Basal Cells in the Stratum Basale of the Epidermis: Stem cells whose divisions replace superficial keratinocytes
Merkel Cells in the Stratum Basale of the Epidermis: Contain a sensory nerve terminal (tactile disk) which is involved in touch sensations
Melanin: Brown pigment produced by melanocytes
Albinism: A condition caused by the absence of melanin production
Carotene: A yellow pigment that accumulates in epidermal cells and is most apparent in the stratum corneum of light-skinned people
Melanosomes: Travel within melanocyte processes and transfer pigmentation temporarily to keratinocytes
Effect of increased blood supply on skin color: Causes skin to be redder because of the increase of hemoglobin
Effect of decreased blood supply on skin color: Causes skin to look flushed as a result of less hemoglobin near the skin surface
Basal Cell Carcinoma: Most common type of skin cancer, which is caused by overexposure to UV rays and very rarely leads to death or metastasis
Malignant Melanoma: Rapid growth of melanocytes, which metastasize through the lymphatic system
Layer of the skin that stabilized the skin's position relative to underlying tissues, permits independent movement, and stores energy in adipocytes: Subcutaneous Layer
Free Nerve Endings: Found between Epidermal cells and are sensitive to touch and pressure
Tactile Discs: Found in the Stratum Basale of the Epidermis and detect sensations of texture and steady pressure
Tactile Corpuscles: Found in the Papillary Layer of the Dermis and detect sensations of delicate touch, pressure, and vibration
Lamellar Corpuscles: Found in Dermal and Subcutaneous layers and are sensitive to deep pressure and vibration
Bulbous Corpuscles: Found in the reticular layer of the dermis and are sensitive to pressure and stretching of the skin
Tension Lines: Collagen and elastic fibers arranged in lines to resist forces applied to the skin
When tension lines are cut perpendicularly: Bad scar marks are left
First Degree Burns: Include the surface of the epidermis, which become erythemic (red)
Second Degree Burns: Include damage to the entire epidermis and some of the dermis, causing blistering, swelling, and infections from ruptured blisters
Third Degree Burns: Full-thickness burns that destroy the epidermis and dermis and extend into the subcutaneous layer, resulting in necessary skin grafting
Autograft: Permanent skin grafting from a patient's own skin
Allograft: Temporary skin grafting from a cadaver
Xenograft: Temporary skin grafting from an animal
Hair Follicle: Accessory structure that produces hair to protect the skull and provide delicate touch sensation
Terminal Hairs: Large, coarse, and black
Vellus Hairs: Small, short, and delicate
Arrector Pili Muscles: Bundles of smooth muscles attached to hair follicles, which contract to keep the skin warm in a cold environment
2 Types of Sebaceous Glands: 1. Typical Sebaceous Glands2. Sebaceous Follicles
Typical Sebaceous Glands: Secrete sebum into hair follicles to moisturize and inhibit bacterial growth
Sebaceous Follicles: Secrete sebum onto the skin surface to inhibit bacterial growth and keep skin moisturized
Two Types of Sweat Glands: 1. Apocrine Sweat Glands2. Eccrine/Merocrine Sweat Glands
Eccrine/Merocrine Sweat Glands: Discharge their secretions directly onto the skin
Apocrine Sweat Glands: Produce a sticky, cloudy secretion around the nipple, in the armpits, and on the pubes
Nails: Thick sheets of keratinized epidermal cells that protect the tips of fingers and toes
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Fewer Melanocytes Causes a decrease in melanin, which leads to very white, easily-sunburnt skin
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Decrease of Sebaceous Gland Secretion Causes a drier epidermis
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Decline of Basal Cell Activity Causes a thinner epidermis
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Decline of Dendritic Cell Activity Diminished immune response
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Thinning Dermis Sagging, wrinkled skin
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Less Eccrine Sweat Glands Decreased perspiration and increased risk of overheating in a hot environment
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Less Sex Hormones Altered fat and hair distribution
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Fewer Active Follicles Less hair
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Decreased Melanocyte Activity White hair
How Age-Related Changes Affect the Integument: Reduced Dermal Blood Supply, Causes slow skin repair and thermoreceptors are easily stimulated, causing elderly to be cold even in a warm room
2 Sources of Vitamin D: 1. Diet2. Sunlight
4 Steps of Integument Repair: 1. Inflammation2. Migration3. Proliferation4. Scarring
Functions of the Skeletal System: 1. Support2. Storage of minerals and lipids3. Production of blood cells4. Protection of tissues and organs5. Provides leverage for skeletal muscle movements
The two divisions of the Skeletal System: 1. Axial2. Appendicular
Flat Bones: Thin bones, such as the sternum, skull, ribs, and scapulae
Sutural Bones: Bones that form between the flat bones of the skull
Irregular Bones: Bones with complex shapes, such as the vertebrae, pelvic bones, and facial bones
Sesamoid Bones: Small, flat bones that develop inside tendons, such as the patella
Short Bones: Small, square bones such as the carpal and tarsal bones
Long Bones: Long, slender bones such as those located in the limbs, palms, and appendages
Epiphysis: An expanded area at each end of the bone which consists largely of spongy/trabecular bone and has portions covered with articular cartilage to articulate with other bones
Metaphysis: A narrow zone that connects the epiphysis to the shaft
Diaphysis: The body of the bone, which consists of the medullary cavity (filled with bone marrow) and a wall made up of compact bone
Compact Bone: Lamellae of each osteon form a series of nested cylinders around the central canal and interstitial lamellae fill the spaces between osteons in compact bone
Spongy/Trabecular Bone: Bone found in areas of low stress with the purpose of lessening the weight of the skeleton, holding red and yellow bone marrow, and diffusing nutrients to osteocytes through the trabeculae
Lamellae: Thin layers of the matrix
Lacuna: Pockets between layers of matrix which contain canaculi, narrow passageways that penetrate the matrix
Endosteum: Incomplete layer which grows, repairs, and remodels bones, allows osteoclasts/osteoblasts to remove matrix components at the incomplete portions of the endosteum, and contains osteoclastic crypts
Osteogenic Cell: Mesenchymal cells that divide to produce daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts, which help repair bone fractures
Osteoclasts: Cells with 50+ nuclei that remove bone matrix by secreting acids and protein-digesting enzymes in a process called osteolysis and are important to calcium and phosphate regulation
Osteoblasts: Differentiated daughter cells which produce new bone matrix in a process called ossification, make and release proteins and organic components of the matrix, and increase local concentrations of calcium phosphate
Appositional Bone Growth: Enlargement of the bone's diameter from the outside
Synarthrosis Joints: Joints that allow no movement, such as sutures
Amphiarthrosis Joints: Joints that allow little movement
Darthrosis Joints: Joints that allow free movement
Suture Joints: Synarthrosis joints found in the skull whose edges are interlocked to form the skeletal bones
Gomphosis Joints: Synarthrosis joints that binds teeth to bony sockets in the mandible and maxilla
Synchondrosis Joints: Synarthrosis Cartilaginous bridge between two articulating bones, such as the ribs and sternum
Synostosis Joints: Synarthrosis joints formed when two bones fuse and the boundary between them disappears
Syndesmosis Joints: An amphiarthrosis ligament connection, including the distal joint between the tibia and fibula
Symphysis Joints: An amphiarthrosis fibrocartilage wedge that separates articulating bones
Synovial Joints: The only diarthrosis joint
Appositional Bone Growth: Enlargement of a bone's diameter by way of osteogenic cells in the inner layer producing daughter cells that differentiate into osteoblasts which add bone matrix to the surface
3 Purposes of the Periosteum: 1. To isolate the bone from surrounding tissues2. To provide a route for nerves and blood3. To grow and repair bones
Endochondral Ossification: Replaces a hyaline cartilage model with bone using interstitial and appositional growth, leaving epiphyseal lines
Intramembranous Ossification: Starts in the early stages of fetal development, forming bone without a prior cartilage model and resulting in Dermal bones
Pituitary Growth Failure: Inadequate production of Growth hormone which leads to reduced cartilage activity and abnormally short bones
Achondroplasia: Abnormal epiphyseal activity that leads to slow growth of long bones, resulting in a normal sized torso with short limbs
Marfan Syndrome: Excessive cartilage formation that leads to long limbs and bones and affects connective tissue structure, which leads to life-threatening cardiovascular problems
Congenital Talipes Equinovarus: Abnormal muscle deveolpment that distorts bones and joints and leads to inverted structures of the lower limb
Giantism: Pre-pubescent overproduction of Growth Hormone
Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva: Random bone deposits as a result of mesenchymal stem cells developing into osteoblasts
Acromegaly: Rise of growth hormones after the closing of epiphyseal cartilage, which causes bones to become thicker
Nutrient Foramen: A passageway that penetrates the diaphysis and provides access for the nutrient vein and artery in long bones
Fibrous Joints: Immovable joints that connect bones with dense fibrous connective tissue
Cartiliginous Joints Mostly immovable joints that unite bones using cartilage
Synovial Joints: Freely movable joints, which are also most commonly found in the body
Types of Joint Movements: 1. Plane Joints2. Hinge Joints3. Condylar Joint4. Pivot Joint5. Ball-and-Socket Joint6. Saddle Joint
H bands during the muscle contraction: Get smaller
I bands during muscle contraction: Get smaller
Zone of Overlap during muscle contraction: Get bigger
Z lines during muscle contraction: Move closer together
A band during muscle contraction: Width remains constant
Sliding Filament Theory: Muscle contraction wherein thin filaments slide past thick filaments
6 Functions of Skeletal Muscle Tissue: 1. Produce bodily movement2. Maintain posture and body position3. Support soft tissues4. Guard body entrances and exits5. Maintain homeostasis6. Store nutrients
Muscle Twitch: Contraction of one single muscle fiber, which varies in duration based on muscle type, location, and internal and external environment
Muscle Fasciculation: A contraction of one motor unit
Motor Unit: A group of skeletal muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron
Asynchronous Motor Unit Summation: Rotation of contraction patterns by motor units so that the individual units don't get tired out
Latent Period: Begins at stimulation and involves an action potential sweeping across the sarcolemma
4 Things that Happen During the Contraction Phase: 1. Calcium ions bind to troponin2. Active sites on thin filaments are exposed3. Cross-bridge interactions occur4. Tension peaks
4 Things that Happen During the Relaxation phase: 1. Calcium levels fall2. Active sites are covered by tropomyosin3. The number of active cross-bridges decline4. Tention returns to resting levels
Treppe: A single twitch that produces higher and higher tensions as the twitch continues until a plateau
Wave Summation: Incomplete tetanus
Complete Tetanus: A higher stimulation frequency that eliminates the relaxation phase as action potentials arrive faster than the SR can reclaim calcium ions
Incomplete Tetanus: A rapid cycle of contraction and relaxation
Isotonic Muscle Contraction: Tension rises to a constant level, changing the length of the skeletal muscle
Isometric Muscle Contraction: The tension produces never exceeds the load and the muscle does not change lengths

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