Bio Terms 5

Question Answer
Cell cycle The regular patter of growth, DNA duplication, and cell division that occurs in Eukaryotic cells.
Mitosis The division of the cell nucleus and its contents
Cytokinesis The process that divides the cytoplasm
Chromosome Is one long continuous thread of DNA that consists of numerous genes along with regulatory information
Histones Each chromosome is associated with a group of proteins called Histones
Chromatin The complex protein and DNA that makes up the chromosome is called chromatin
Chromatid One half of a duplicated chromosome
Centromere A region of condensed chromosomes that look pinched
Telomere The ends of DNA molecules form structures called telomere, which are made of repeating nucleotides that do not form genes
Prophase Chromatin condense into tightly coiled chromosomes
Metaphase The spindle fibers attach to a protein structure on the centromere of each chromosome and align the chromosomes along the cell equator, around the middle of the cell
Anaphase Sister chromatids separate from each other
Telophase A complete set of identical chromosomes is positioned at each pole of the cell
Growth factor A broad group of proteins that stimulate cell division
Apoptosis Programmed cell death
Cancer Common name for a class of diseases characterized by uncontrolled cell division
Benign In a benign tumor, the cancer cells typically remain clustered together
Malignant When cancer cells break away
Metastasize Also the spread of cancer
Carcinogens Substances that produce or promote the development of cancer
Asexual reproduction The production of offspring from one single parent; no intercourse
Binary fission The asexual reproduction of a single-celled organism by which the cell divides into two cells of the same size
Tissue A group of cells that work together to perform a similar function
Organs Groups of tissue that work together to preform a specific function or related function
Organ system Organs that carry out similar functions
Cell differentiation The process by which a cell becomes specialized for a specific structure or function during multicellular development
Stem cells A unique type of body cell that can divide and renew themselves for long periods of time, remain undifferentiated in form, and differentiate into a variety of specialized cell types

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