Am Gov Exam Review Chapters 12-16

Question Answer
Criminal Law Government charges an individual with violating a statute that has been enacted to protect public health, safety, morals, and welfare
Plaintiff The party that brings the chargesGovernment
Defendants Found guilty of criminal violations may be fined or sent to prison
Civil Law Involved disputes among individuals, groups, corporations, and other private entities
State Courts Courts of the fifty states
Federal Courts Courts of the United States
Trial Court Front of a judge and sometimes a jury determine if the defendant violated state law
Courts of Appeal If defendant is convicted they may appeal conviction to a higher court
Supreme Court Court of last resort
United States District Courts Trial courts in the federal court system; courts of general jurisdictionalmost all federal cases begin
United States Courts of Appeals Intermediate appellate courts in the federal court system just below the Supreme Court
Senatorial Courtesy Before the president can make a formal nomination, the senators from the candidate's own state must indicate that they support the nominee
Judicial Review Authority of courts sets aside a legislative act as being in violation of the Consistution
Briefs Written documents in which the attorneys explain why the courts should rule in favor of their client
Public Policy Government chooses what to do and not to do
System Model Model of public policy; product of an interlocking relationship between institutions of government and their social, economic, and political environment
Bureaucratic Model Model of policy making; plays a crucial role in the making of policy because of their commitment and the expertise they can provide
Marxism Model Model of policy; public policy decsions reflect the interest of the ruling class at the expense of workers
Free-Market Capitalism Model Model of policy; limits the role of the government so that the natural forces of supply and demand are allowed to prevail in the marketplace
Elitism Public policy decisions are made by a relatively small group of individuals acting in their own self-interest rather than the interest of all citzens
Pluralism Public policy decisions are the result of struggle among contesting groups rather than a single elite
Countervailing Theory of Pressure Politics Conflicts among groups produce a balance so that no single group dominates
Rational-Comprehensive Model Involves a sequence of steps for "rational decisions"
Incrementalism Model of decision making that holds new policies should differ only marginally from existing policies
Economic Policy Decisions government makes with the explicit intention of influencing the economy
Laissz-faire Government should stay out of economics and business
Socialism People will be better off if the economic decision making is left to the control of the government and if the government owns and operates most major industires
Fiscal Government decisions about taxing and spending that affect the economic life of a nation
Monetary Government decision about how much money should circulate in the economy and what the cost of borrowing money the interest rate should be
Deficit Occurs when expenditures (tuition, room, and meals) exceed the revenues (income from a part-time job and money from parents)
Debt Sum of the deficits of prior years
Surplus Excess of revenue over expenses
Domestic Policy Category of public policy that is comprised of policy decisions on matters affecting individuals within a political system
Social Darwinism Biological evolution of society and hold that social relationships occur within a struggle for survival Only the fittest survive

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